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Gozar: NAT-friendly peer sampling with one-hop distributed NAT traversal
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101). (SCS)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6718-0144
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Gossip-based peer sampling protocols have been widely used as a building block for many large-scale distributed applications. However, Network Address Translation gateways (NATs) cause most existing gossiping protocols to break down, as nodes cannot establish direct connections to nodes behind NATs (private nodes). In addition, most of the existing NAT traversal algorithms for establishing connectivity to private nodes rely on third party servers running at a well-known, public IP addresses. In this paper, we present Gozar, a gossip-based peer sampling service that: (i) provides uniform random samples in the presence of NATs, and (ii) enables direct connectivity to sampled nodes using a fully distributed NAT traversal service, where connection messages require only a single hop to connect to private nodes. We show in simulation that Gozar preserves the randomness properties of a gossip-based peer sampling service. We show the robustness of Gozar when a large fraction of nodes reside behind NATs and also in catastrophic failure scenarios. For example, if 80% of nodes are behind NATs, and 80% of the nodes fail, more than 92% of the remaining nodes stay connected. In addition, we compare Gozar with existing NAT-friendly gossip-based peer sampling services, Nylon and ARRG. We show that Gozar is the only system that supports one-hop NAT traversal, and its overhead is roughly half of Nylon's.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. 1-14 p.
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), ISSN 0302-9743 ; 6723
Keyword [en]
Break down, Building blockes, Catastrophic failures, Gossiping protocols, IP addresss, Large-scale distributed applications, NAT traversal, Network address translation gateways, Random sample, Randomness property, Sampling protocol, Single hop, Third parties
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Information Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33780DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-21387-8_1ISI: 000306288500001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79959993895ISBN: 9783642213861 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-33780DiVA: diva2:417514
Conference
11th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference on Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems, DAIS 2011; Reykjavik; Iceland; 6-9 June 2011
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QS 20140915

Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-03-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Distributed Optimization of P2P Media Delivery Overlays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Optimization of P2P Media Delivery Overlays
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Media streaming over the Internet is becoming increasingly popular. Currently, most media is delivered using global content-delivery networks, providing a scalable and robust client-server model. However, content delivery infrastructures are expensive. One approach to reduce the cost of media delivery is to use peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay networks, where nodes share responsibility for delivering the media to one another. The main challenges in P2P media streaming using overlay networks include: (i) nodes should receive the stream with respect to certain timing constraints, (ii) the overlay should adapt to the changes in the network, e.g., varying bandwidth capacity and join/failure of nodes, (iii) nodes should be intentivized to contribute and share their resources, and (iv) nodes should be able to establish connectivity to the other nodes behind NATs. In this work, we meet these requirements by presenting P2P solutions for live media streaming, as well as proposing a distributed NAT traversal solution. First of all, we introduce a distributed market model to construct an approximately minimal height multiple-tree streaming overlay for content delivery, in gradienTv. In this system, we assume all the nodes are cooperative and execute the protocol. However, in reality, there may exist some opportunistic nodes,  free-riders, that take advantage of the system, without contributing to content distribution. To overcome this problem, we extend our market model in Sepidar to be effective in deterring free-riders. However, gradienTv and Sepidar are tree-based solutions, which are fragile in high churn and failure scenarios. We present a solution to this problem in GLive that provides a more robust overlay by replacing the tree structure with a mesh. We show in simulation, that the mesh-based overlay outperforms the multiple-tree overlay. Moreover, we compare the performance of all our systems with the state-of-the-art NewCoolstreaming, and observe that they provide better playback continuity and lower playback latency than that of NewCoolstreaming under a variety of experimental scenarios. Although our distributed market model can be run against a random sample of nodes, we improve its convergence time by executing it against a sample of nodes taken from the Gradient overlay. The Gradient overlay organizes nodes in a topology using a local utility value at each node, such that nodes are ordered in descending utility values away from a core of the highest utility nodes. The evaluations show that the streaming overlays converge faster when our market model works on top of the Gradient overlay. We use a gossip-based peer sampling service in our streaming systems to provide each node with a small list of live nodes. However, in the Internet, where a high percentage of nodes are behind NATs, existing gossiping protocols break down. To solve this problem, we present Gozar , a NAT-friendly gossip-based peer sampling service that: (i) provides uniform random samples in the presence of NATs, and (ii) enables direct connectivity to sampled nodes using a fully distributed NAT traversal service. We compare Gozar with the state-of-the-art NAT-friendly gossip-based peer sampling service, Nylon, and show that only Gozar supports one-hop NAT traversal, and its overhead is roughly half of Nylon’s.

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. x, 31 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 2011:04
Keyword
P2P overlay networks, P2P live streaming, Distributed optimization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33287 (URN)978-91-7415-970-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-06-03, Sal D, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 14:17 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110517Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2011-05-18Bibliographically approved

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Haridi, Seif

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