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Systems for Interactive Control of Computer Generated Music Performance
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2926-6518
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3086-0322
2013 (English)In: Guide to Computing for Expressive Music Performance / [ed] Kirke, A., & Miranda, E., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 49-73 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter is a literature survey of systems for real-time interactive control of automatic expressive music performance. A classification is proposed based on two initial design choices: the music material to interact with (i.e., MIDI or audio recordings) and the type of control (i.e., direct control of the low-level parameters such as tempo, intensity, and instrument balance or mapping from high-level parameters, such as emotions, to low-level parameters). Their pros and cons are briefly discussed. Then, a generic approach to interactive control is presented, comprising four steps: control data collection and analysis, mapping from control data to performance parameters, modification of the music material, and audiovisual feedback synthesis. Several systems are then described, focusing on different technical and expressive aspects. For many of the surveyed systems, a formal evaluation is missing. Possible methods for the evaluation of such systems are finally discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013. 49-73 p.
National Category
Computer Science Human Computer Interaction Music
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34088DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4123-5_2ISBN: 978-1-4471-4123-5OAI: diva2:419083

Updated from In Press to Published

Available from: 2011-05-25 Created: 2011-05-25 Last updated: 2014-01-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interactive computer-aided expressive music performance: Analysis, control, modification and synthesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive computer-aided expressive music performance: Analysis, control, modification and synthesis
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the design and implementation process of two applications (PerMORFer and MoodifierLive) for the interactive manipulation of music performance. Such applications aim at closing the gap between the musicians, who play the music, and the listeners, who passively listen to it. The goal was to create computer programs that allow the user to actively control how the music is performed. This is achieved by modifying such parameters as tempo, dynamics, and articulation, much like a musician does when playing an instrument. An overview of similar systems and the problems related to their development is given in the first of the included papers.

Four requirements were defined for the applications: (1) to produce a natural, high quality sound; (2) to allow for realistic modifications of the performance parameters; (3) to be easy to control, even for non-musicians; (4) to be portable. Although there are many similarities between PerMORFer and MoodifierLive, the two applications fulfill different requirements. The first two were addressed in PerMORFer, with which the user can manipulate pre-recorded audio performance. The last two were addressed in MoodifierLive, a mobile phone application for gesture-based control of a MIDI score file. The tone-by tone modifications in both applications are based on the KTH rule system for music performance. The included papers describe studies, methods, and algorithms used in the development of the two applications.

Audio recordings of real performance have been used in PerMORFer toachieve a natural sound. The tone-by-tone manipulations defined by the KTH rules first require an analysis of the original performance to separate the tones and estimate their parameters (IOI, duration, dynamics). Available methods were combined with novel solutions, such as an approach to the separation of two overlapping sinusoidal components. On the topic of performance analysis, ad-hoc algorithms were also developed to analyze DJ scratching recordings.

A particularly complex problem is the estimation of a tone’s dynamic level. A study was conducted to identify the perceptual cues that listeners use to determinethe dynamics of a tone. The results showed that timbre is as important as loudness. These findings were applied in a partly unsuccessful attempt to estimate dynamics from spectral features.

The manipulation of tempo is a relatively simple problem, as is that of articulation (i.e. legato-staccato) as long as the tone can be separated. The modification of dynamics on the other hand is more difficult, as was its estimation. Following the findings of the previously mentioned perceptual study, a method to modify both loudness and timbre using a database of spectral models was implemented.

MoodifierLive was used to experiment with performance control interfaces. In particular, the mobile phone’s built-in accelerometer was used to track, analyze, and interpret the movements of the user. Expressive gestures were then mapped to corresponding expressive music performances. Evaluation showed that modes based on natural gestures were easier to use than those created witha top-down approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 69 p.
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2011:12
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34099 (URN)978-91-7501-031-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-06-15, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
QC 20110607Available from: 2011-06-07 Created: 2011-05-25 Last updated: 2012-03-22Bibliographically approved

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