Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Heat Transfer Aspects of Using Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage Applications
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. (Thermal Energy Storage, Energy Technology)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6982-2879
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Innovative methods for providing sustainable heating and cooling through thermal energy storage (TES) have gained increasing attention as heating and cooling demands in the built environment continue to climb. As energy prices continue to soar and systems reach their maximal capacity, there is an urgent need for alternatives to alleviate peak energy use. TES systems allow decoupling of energy production from energy utilization, both in location and in time. It is shown in this thesis that successful implementation of TES in the built environment alleviates peak energy load and reduces network expansion as well as the marginal energy production cost.

This thesis analyzes phase change material (PCM) based TES systems in terms of material property characterization, numerical modeling and validation of thermal storage, as well as case specific techno-economic feasibility studies of system integration. The difficulties identified in latent heat TES design, such as heat transfer aspects, subcooling and identification of phase separation, have been analyzed through Temperature-History mapping and TES numerical modeling with experimental validation. This work focuses on the interdependency between resource availability, thermal charge/discharge power and storage capacity. In a situation where resource availability is limited, e.g. when using free cooling, waste heat or off-peak storage, the thermal power and storage capacity are strongly interrelated and should always be considered in unison to reach an acceptable techno-economic solution. Furthermore, when considering TES integration into an existing thermal energy distribution network, three adverse aspects are revealed in the Swedish case study: the single tariff system, the low-return temperature penalty, and the low storage utilization rate. These issues can be overcome through better adapted policies and optimized storage control strategies. Finally, despite the currently unfavorable conditions in the Swedish energy system, it is shown that TES has the potential to mitigate climate change through greenhouse gas emission reduction by displacing fossil-fuel based marginal thermal energy production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xiv, 59 p.
Series
Trita-KRV, ISSN 1100-7990 ; 11/04
Keyword [en]
thermal energy storage, comfort cooling, phase change materials, heat transfer
National Category
Energy Engineering Other Materials Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34263ISBN: 978-91-7501-034-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-34263DiVA: diva2:419998
Presentation
2011-06-22, M2, Brinellvägen 64, KTH, Stockholm, 15:47 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Cold Thermal Energy Storage
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20110629Available from: 2011-06-29 Created: 2011-05-30 Last updated: 2011-06-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Review of Thermal Energy Storage Systems with Salt Hydrate Phase Change Materials for Comfort Cooling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review of Thermal Energy Storage Systems with Salt Hydrate Phase Change Materials for Comfort Cooling
2009 (English)In: 11th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, June 14-17 , 2009, Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a review of cold thermal energy storage technologies. Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) with phase change materials (PCMs) deserves attention as they provide high energy density and small temperature change interval upon melting/solidifying. Salt hydrates are especially interesting since they demonstrate high latent heat of fusion, high thermal conductivity, low flammability, and facilitate the use in buildings as compared to organic PCMs. A review of system performance obtained from experimental work, theoretical analyses and real case studies has however shown some material shortcomings. To reach cost effectiveness, future work in the field of LHTES with salt hydrates lies in finding suitable methods for limiting incongruent melting and subcooling without compromising the storage density. Also, system integration of LHTES in cold applications can be further developed in terms of innovative design for high power and storage capacity, load optimized sizing, controls, and elimination of PCM encapsulation.

Keyword
PCM, TES, salt hydrate
National Category
Energy Engineering Materials Chemistry Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26969 (URN)
Conference
EFFSTOCK 2009
Projects
Cold Thermal Energy Storage
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20110126Available from: 2011-01-26 Created: 2010-12-01 Last updated: 2013-03-12Bibliographically approved
2. System Integration of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Comfort Cooling Integrated in district cooling network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Integration of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Comfort Cooling Integrated in district cooling network
2009 (English)In: 11th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, EFFSTOCK 2009, Stockholm, Sweden, June 14-17, 2009., 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Latent heat thermal energy storage for comfort cooling with phase change materials (PCMs) has increasingly gained attention. For effective system integration, an optimized strategy for load shifting to cut down peak hour energy use is needed. With the focus on overall system performance, this paper addresses matching of a cold storage capacity and power to a demand while assessing the cost effectiveness of the PCM technology. A simulation model based on one office building cooling load in Stockholm Sweden was used. Storage capacity, power output and PCM cost were shown to be the predominant factors in a system design. It has been found that load leveling can cost effectively reduce the peak load by 5% to 9% in a fixed tariff system. However, with 50% reduction in today’s PCM price combined with removal of district cooling return temperature penalty, the peak power reduction rate may be increased to 30%.

Keyword
TES, PCM, District Cooling, Peak Shave, Load Shift
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-30636 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage
Projects
Cold Thermal Energy Storage
Note
QC 20110307Available from: 2011-03-07 Created: 2011-03-02 Last updated: 2013-03-12Bibliographically approved
3. Next Generation Cost Effective Phase Change Materials: TUD Action COST-STSM-TU0802-05255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Next Generation Cost Effective Phase Change Materials: TUD Action COST-STSM-TU0802-05255
2009 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Cooperation in Science and Technology, 2009. iii, 11 p.
Keyword
PCM, TES, Free Cooling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34052 (URN)
Projects
Cold Thermal Energy Storage
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20110530Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-24 Last updated: 2011-06-29Bibliographically approved
4. Thermal energy storage for sustainable future: impact of power enhancement on storage performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal energy storage for sustainable future: impact of power enhancement on storage performance
2010 (English)In: International Conference on Sustainable Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology, Stockholm, June 13-16, 2010., 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sustainable future may be reached by means of maximizing the use of renewable energies through energy storage solutions. Active thermal storage exploits the potential of storing low cost, off-peak thermal cooling and heating for use at later time. Many studies have been carried out for optimization of energy storage systems through proactive planning of storage capacity design, fine tuning of control systems, and realization of cost effective scenario modeling. In the field of latent heat based thermal energy storage with use of phase change materials (PCM), low material thermal conductivity has shown to be one of the main barriers for providing sufficient cooling and heating power to the system. Thus, despite the apparent benefit of PCM-technology when it comes to large storage energy density, practical implementation of the technology has been hampered in many cases. Although a large number of available power enhancing techniques have been reported, the influence of power enhancement to the energy storage capacity has so far not been thoroughly assessed. In this paper, we perform an evaluation of power enhancing solutions and their impact on thermal energy storage density through theoretical modeling of a set of enhancement techniques. The techniques considered are: extended surfaced heat exchangers with various fin geometries (e.g. radial fins around circular piping) as well as PCM enhanced through blending with high conductive materials. Results analyses show the importance of balancing usable power with storable energy in the design of power enhancement technology, so as to achieve the maximum storage capacity while maintaining required extraction power load.

Keyword
PCM, TES, Power, Capacity, Modeling
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-30635 (URN)
Conference
Sustainable Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology
Projects
Cold Thermal Energy Storage
Note
QC 20110307Available from: 2011-03-07 Created: 2011-03-02 Last updated: 2013-03-12Bibliographically approved
5. Submerged finned heat exchanger latent heat storage design and its experimental verification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Submerged finned heat exchanger latent heat storage design and its experimental verification
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 93, no SI, 507-516 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal energy storage (TES) has shown potential in improving the overall performance in energy systems, through shifting of thermal load demand, and through matching of uneven energy availability in time and in space. Latent heat TESs demonstrate advantages over sensible heat TESs for their high storage density and small temperature swing; however, lack of accurate knowledge in novel material properties and lack in a holistic design protocol often lead to difficulties in reaching technically viable storage design. With the aim of proposing a sound latent heat based TES design-to-validation protocol, this paper covers material property characterization through Temperature-history (T-history) method, heat exchanger design through heat transfer modeling, and model validation through experimental verification. A model for submerged cylindrically finned heat exchanger latent heat storage unit with phase change material was built. The results show that performance of gelled salt-hydrate based TES can be assessed with a pure conduction based model. This material property characterization-to-model verification approach may serve as a standard in providing accurate storage design for performance evaluation.

Keyword
PCM, Energy Storage, T-History, Heat Transfer Enhancement, modeling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34261 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.12.019 (DOI)000302836500059 ()2-s2.0-84857996845 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Cold Thermal Energy Storage
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20120524

Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
6. Thermal Energy Storage: Climate Change Mitigation Solution?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal Energy Storage: Climate Change Mitigation Solution?
2011 (English)In: International Conference for Sustainable Energy Storage, Belfast, UK: University of Ulster , 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Environmental well being and technology development are on the verge of collapsing. It has been asserted by IPCC that 30% of fauna and flora will face extinction by mid 21st century in the pursuit of business as usual path with current economic development pace. In order to minimize the anthropogenic related damage to the environment, a maximum level of 450ppm CO2 emission has to be maintained at all cost. Technologies that provide climate change mitigation solution and economic growth are hence the highlight; thermal energy storage (TES) is one among them. Energy storage provides the possibility to shift load from on peak energy demand to off peak thermal and electricity production, this results in lower energy flux in the system and therefore cuts down the marginal thermal and electricity production. This reduction in peak power demand translates to a decrease in marginal power production which, in today’s fossil fuel based economy, often pars with auxiliary and high carbon emitting thermal and electric power plants. This study provides a scenario analysis which quantifies the environmental benefit of TES implementation for the Swedish energy system. In the studied scenario, thermal energy storage will be implemented to the existing energy grid to alleviate peak electric and thermal power demand. The rate of implementation is paired with decrease in technology cost, reproduced from typical Learning Curve Model. The study shows that for the Swedish energy system, the total amount of fossil fuel used in heating of residential and service sectors is 19TWh, while reduction that can be achieved cost effectively with implementation of TES amounts to 2.5TWh. This corresponds to a Green House Gas (GHG) emission reduction of 620kton/year or 13% of total fossil fuel based emissions from heating in residential and service sectors.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Belfast, UK: University of Ulster, 2011
Keyword
GHG Emission, TES, PCM, Climate Change, Energy, Storage
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34053 (URN)
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20100530Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-24 Last updated: 2013-03-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

PCM in TES(4938 kB)21082 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 4938 kBChecksum SHA-512
0fa3d6ef4ca54617c527634fc9c3b2032dd8e5748f7e90aeb494a38e7c13e17dbffb54329d27390cc4ad032e54267a308d7878e1ec05c106b4a59a618a551e5d
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Chiu, Justin NingWei

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Chiu, Justin NingWei
By organisation
Heat and Power Technology
Energy EngineeringOther Materials EngineeringOther Environmental Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 21082 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1104 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf