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Evaluation of deammonification process performance at different aeration strategies
Department of Environment Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
2011 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 63, no 6, 1168-1176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a deammonification process applied in the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) oxygen is a crucial parameter for the process performance and efficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate different aeration strategies, characterised by the ratio between non-aerated and aerated phase times (R) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO). The series of batch tests were conducted with variable DO concentrations (2, 3, 4 mg L-1) and R values (0-continuous aeration; 1/3, 1, 3-intermittent aeration) but with the same initial ammonium concentration, volume of the moving bed and temperature. It was found that the impact of DO on deammonification was dependent on the R value. At R=0 and R=1/3, an increase of DO caused a significant increase in nitrogen removal rate, whereas for R=1 and R=3 similar rates of the process were observed irrespectively of the DO. The highest nitrogen removal rate of 3.33 g N m(-2) d(-1) (efficiency equal to 69.5%) was obtained at R=1/3 and DO=4 mg L-1. Significantly lower nitrogen removal rates (1.17-1.58 g N m(-2) d(-1)) were observed at R=1 and R=3 for each examined DO. It was a consequence reduced aerated phase duration times and lesser amounts of residual nitrite in non-aerated phases as compared to R 1/3.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 63, no 6, 1168-1176 p.
Keyword [en]
deammonification, dissolved oxygen, intermittent aeration, ratio between non-aerated and aerated phase timings
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32222DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.356ISI: 000288852600012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79955658157OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32222DiVA: diva2:420327
Note
QC 20110601Available from: 2011-06-01 Created: 2011-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Controlling and monitoring of deammonification process in moving bed biofilm reactor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling and monitoring of deammonification process in moving bed biofilm reactor
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is considered that partial nitrification combined with anammox, named deammonification, is more environmental friendly compared with conventional nitrification/denitrification due to decrease energy requirement, low emission of CO2 and N2O. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a significant parameter influencing the nitrogen removal rate and activity of different microorganisms. A proper level of DO concentration is needed to allow ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to produce a sufficient amount of NO2--N for anammox reaction. Too high NO2--N levels should be avoided as they cause inhibition effects on anammox bacteria or increase growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this study, investigations have been carried out, both in laboratory and pilot scales to evaluate the influence of different aeration strategies (characterized by dissolved oxygen concentration - DO and the ratio between non-aerated and aerated phase duration – R) on the deammonification process applied in the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR).

Three series of batch tests were conducted in laboratory scale with different DO concentrations (2, 3, 4 mg/l) and R values (0 - continuous aeration; 1/3, 1, 3 – intermittent aeration), the same initial ammonium concentration, volume of the reject water and temperature. It was found that the impact of DO on deammonification was dependent on the R value. At R=0 and R=1/3, an increase of DO caused a significant increase in nitrogen removal rate, whereas for R=1 and R=3 similar rates of the process were observed irrespectively of the DO. The highest nitrogen removal rate of 3.33 gN/m2·d was obtained at R=1/3 and DO=4 mg/l. Significantly lower nitrogen removal rates (1.17 - 1.58 gN/m2·d) were observed at R=1 and R=3 for each examined DO. It was a consequence of reduced aerated phase duration times and lower amounts of residual nitrite in non - aerated phases as compared to R=1/3.

Pilot scale experiments were carried out in a MBBR with a working volume of 200 L. The pilot plant has been operated for 1.5 years to remove nitrogen from reject water after dewatering of digested sludge. The activity of different groups of microorganisms in the biofilm was measured by specific anammox activity (SAA), oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and nitrate utilization rate (NUR) tests. The whole operation was divided into seven periods according to different nitrogen loads and different aeration strategies. The highest nitrogen removal rate and efficiency was obtained when DO was 3.5 mg/l and R equaled to 1/3. Activity tests showed that anammox bacteria and AOB play the dominating roles in the biofilm. The average and maximum values of specific anammox activity (SAA) were 3.01 gN/m2·d and 4.3 gN/m2·d, respectively. An average value of 4.0 gO2/m2·d and the maximum value of 5.1 gO2/m2·d was obtained in the oxygen uptake rate for AOB activity tests.

Study results showed that application of an appropriate selected aeration strategy reduced energy consumption without any negative impacts on the process. Introduction of anaerobic phases and high nitrogen load enhanced the activity of anammox bacteria and NOB activity was limited.

Abstract [sv]

Partiell nitrifikation i kombination med anammoxprocess, som kallas för deammonifikationprocess, anses vara mer miljövänlig jämfört med konventionell nitrifikation/denitrifikation pga minskat energibehov samt låga utsläpp av CO2 och N2O. Löst syre (DO) är en viktig parameter som påverkar hastigheten för kväverening och aktiviteten hos olika mikroorganismer. DO koncentrationer bör vara på en viss nivå för att ammoniumoxiderande bakterier (AOB) skall producera en tillräcklig mängd NO2-N för anammoxreaktionen, men inte heller för hög då hög NO2-N nivå ger en anammoxhämmande effekt eller ökad tillväxt av nitritoxiderande bakterier (NOB). I denna studie har undersökningar utförts både i laboratorie- och pilotskala för att utvärdera inverkan av olika luftningsstrategier, (som kännetecknas av koncentrationen av löst syre - DO och förhållandet (R) mellan tider för icke luftade och luftade faser), på deammonifikationprocessen i en MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor).

Tre serier av satsvisa försök utfördes i laboratorieskala med olika syre koncentrationer (2, 3, 4 mg/l) och R värden (0 - kontinuerlig luftning; 1/3, 1, 3 - intermittent luftning), men med samma initiala ammonium-koncentration, volym av den rörliga bädden och temperatur. Man fann att effekten av löst syre (DO) på deammonifikationen var beroende på R-värde. Vid R = 0 och R = 1/3, gav en ökning av löst syre (DO) en signifikant ökning i kvävereningshastigheten, medan för R = 1 och R = 3 observerades samma hastighet i processen oberoende av löst syrehalt (DO). Den högsta hastigheten för kväveavskiljning 3,33 gN/m2.d (avskiljningsgraden var lika med 69,5%) erhölls vid R=1/3 och DO=4 mg/l. Betydligt lägre värden (från 1,17 till 1,58 gN/m2.d) observerades vid R=1 och R=3 för varje undersökt halt av löst syre (DO). Det var en följd av minskad varaktighet av luftad fas och mindre mängd av kvarvarande nitrit i icke luftade faser jämfört med R= 1/3.

Pilotskaleförsök utfördes i en MBBR med en arbetsvolym på 200 L. Pilotanläggningen har drivits i 1,5 år med att avlägsna kväve från rejektvatten från avvattning av rötslam. Aktiviteten hos olika grupper av mikroorganismer i biofilmen mättes genom tester av specifik anammoxaktivitet (SAA), syreupptagningshastighet (OUR) och nitratutnyttjandegrad (NUR). Driften var uppdelat i 7 perioder med olika kvävebelastning och luftningsstrategier. Den högsta hastigheten och grad av kväveavskiljning erhölls då DO var 3,5 mg/l och R uppgick till 1/3.

Aktivitetstester visade att anammoxbakterier och AOB spelade dominerande roller i biofilmen. De genomsnittliga och maximala värden för specifika anammoxaktiviteten (SAA) var 3,01 gO2/m2.d och 4,3 gO2/m2.d, respektive. 4,0 gO2/m2.d som medelvärde och högsta värde på 5,1 gO2/m2.d erhölls för syreupptagningen för AOB aktivitetstester. 

Studien visade att användning av en lämpligt vald luftningsstrategi minskar energiförbrukningen utan några negativa effekter på processen. Införande av anaeroba faser och hög kvävetillförseln ökar aktiviteten för anammoxbakterier och NOB-aktiviteten begränsades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xviii, 29 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2065
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98624 (URN)978-91-7501-384-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-06-11, V3, KTH, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120628Available from: 2012-06-28 Created: 2012-06-28 Last updated: 2012-07-03Bibliographically approved
2. The deammonification in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The deammonification in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Deammonification process appears to be a good alternative to treat reject water. In this thesis, control strategies were studied at pilot scale in order to optimise the deammonification process operated in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) for reject water treatment. The processes were monitored by microbial activity tests, Specific Anammox Activity (SAA), Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR), and Nitrate Uptake Rate (NUR) tests, in order to measure the anammox, ammonium/nitrite oxidizers and denitrifiers activity. Aeration and redox as control parameters were tested. The results showed that intermittent aeration, with 15min non-aerated period in a one hour cycle, could reduce the aeration time without loss of process efficiency. A redox value of pE=0 gave the best operational condition even if there were different nitrogen loads applied in the system.

Pilot scale deammonification MBBR was tested towards to mainstream conditions. The reactor was run at different temperatures (25-19°C) to test the process stability and it was seen that the process started to become unstable when the temperature was at 19°C. Moreover, the combined treatment line, Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor and MBBR with deammonification process, was established with the aim of being applied in mainstream treatment. The study results indicated that when the influent of the deammonification process shifted from reject water to UASB effluent (NH4+-N=100 mg/l), the process began to show unstable performance.

N2O was measured and compared in the deammonification process treating reject water in this study. Between 0.4% and 2 % of the nitrogen load was converted to N2O in pilot and full scale studies. The results indicated that there was no significant emission difference when the process was performed with continuous or intermittent aeration; the production and consumption of N2O was dependent on the nitrogen loads and DO concentration applied in the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 41 p.
Series
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2016:05
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185942 (URN)978-91-7595-920-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-18, Sal F3, indstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160429

Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2016-04-29 Last updated: 2016-04-29Bibliographically approved

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