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Core-shell nanoparticle-plasticizers for design of high-performance polymeric materials with improved stiffness and toughness
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7790-8987
2011 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 21, no 24, 8670-8677 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Core-shell nanoparticle-plasticizers were synthesized and blended with PVC in an attempt to simultaneously improve the toughness and stiffness of the resulting materials. Halloysite, kaolin and silicon dioxide nanofillers, representing acicular, layered and spherical morphologies, were surface-grafted with poly(butylene adipate) (PBA). The surface-grafting was confirmed by FTIR and the amount of PBA grafted on the surface was determined by TGA. In the case of halloysite and silicon dioxide nanoparticles their dispersion and miscibility in the PVC matrix were remarkably improved by the surface-grafting as shown by SEM, tensile testing and DMA. The tensile stress at break for the PVC films containing 5 wt% surface-treated halloysite nanoparticles increased 15%, modulus by 65% and the strain at break was 30 times higher compared to PVC containing 5 wt% untreated halloysite nanoparticles. The PVC films containing 5 wt% surface-treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles exhibited remarkably higher strain at break values compared to plain PVC/silicon dioxide composites, but also somewhat lower stress at break values probably due to the considerably higher amount of PBA grafted on the silicon dioxide surfaces. The higher storage modulus for PVC with surface modified silicon dioxide, however, still indicates higher stiffness for the material containing surface treated nanoparticles. Altogether the results show that the nanoparticle-plasticizer concept could be applied to simultaneously improve the toughness and stiffness of the materials and further improvements could be achieved after optimization of the number of PBA chains and their molecular weight.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 21, no 24, 8670-8677 p.
Keyword [en]
POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) NANOCOMPOSITES; MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES; CHAIN ARCHITECTURE; MONTMORILLONITE; BLENDS
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35132DOI: 10.1039/c1jm10624dISI: 000291352900028Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79959277550OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-35132DiVA: diva2:426440
Note

QC 20110623

Available from: 2011-06-23 Created: 2011-06-20 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Core-shell nanoparticle and renewable resource plasticizers for PVC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core-shell nanoparticle and renewable resource plasticizers for PVC
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 43 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:39
Keyword
PVC, nanocomposite, nanoparticle, core-shell, pasticizer, renewable resources, isosorbide
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-38550 (URN)978-91-7501-005-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-06-07, V3, KTH, Teknikringen 76, 2 tr, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110829Available from: 2011-08-29 Created: 2011-08-29 Last updated: 2011-08-29Bibliographically approved
2. Functional PVC Additives: Core-Shell Nanoparticle and Renewable Resource Plasticizers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional PVC Additives: Core-Shell Nanoparticle and Renewable Resource Plasticizers
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several functional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) additives were designed: PVC plasticizers made from renewable resources as alternatives to traditional phthalate plasticizers and core-shell nanoparticle-plasticizers with the aim to design an additive that can improve several mechanical properties simultaneously. Monomeric and oligomeric PVC plasticizers based of isosorbide and glucose were synthesized. Their structures and molecular weights were determined by SEC, NMR, FTIR and LDI-MS. PVC was blended with the different plasticizers and miscibility, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the blends were analyzed. PVC/isosorbide dihexanoate (SDH) films exhibited similar properties as PVC/diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP) blends. PVC films plasticized by oligo(isosorbide suberate) (OSS) and oligo(isosorbide adipate) (OSA) showed better thermal stability and higher mechanical strength, but lower strain compared to the PVC/DIOP and PVC/SDH blends. Glucose ester plasticizers with slightly different chemical structures were synthesized by applying different reaction times. Results revealed that the plasticization efficiency was improved by larger number of hexanoate units on the glucose ring. Altogether the glucose esters showed great potential as renewable PVC plasticizers.

Core-shell nanoparticle-plasticizers were designed with the aim to simultaneously improve both the stiffness and toughness of the materials. Halloysite, kaolin and silicon dioxide nanoparticles were surface-grafted by poly(butylene adipate) (PBA). The surface-grafting was confirmed by FTIR and the amount of grafting was determined by TGA. PVC/nanoparticles binary blends and PVC/PBA/nanoparticle ternary blends were prepared by solution casting. The dispersion of nanoparticles in the PVC matrix, as observed by SEM, was remarkably improved by the surface-grafting. The tensile stress at break for the PVC films containing 5 wt-% surface-treated halloysite nanoparticles (St-Halloy-5) increased 15 % compared with the material containing same amount of untreated halloysite nanoparticles (untreated Halloy-5) films. The St-Halloy-5 films also exhibited 30 times higher strain at break values compared to untreated Halloy-5 films. The PVC films containing 5 wt-% surface-treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (St-SiO2-5) exhibited remarkably higher strain at break values even though the strength was slightly lower compared to the material with same amount untreated SiO2 particles. The nanoparticle surface treatment also improved the mechanical properties of PVC/PBA/nanoparticle ternary blends. PBA/St-Halloy exhibited most obvious improvement compared to PBA/Halloy, the values increased more than 100% for both stress at break and strain at break The results show that the designed nanoparticle-plasticizers could simultaneous improve the stiffness and toughness of PVC materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 62 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:16
Keyword
PVC, nanocomposite, nanoparticle, core-shell, plasticizer, renewable resources, isosorbide, glucose
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120100 (URN)978-91-7501-693-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-19, K2, Teknikringen 28, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130402

Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-03-27 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved

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