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On Incentives affecting Risk and Asset Management of Power Distribution
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. (RCAM)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6882-3642
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The introduction of performance based tariff regulations along with higher media and political pressure have increased the need for well-performed risk and asset management applied to electric power distribution systems (DS), which is an infrastructure considered as a natural monopoly. Compared to other technical systems, DS have special characteristics which are important to consider. The Swedish regulation of DS tariffs between 1996 and 2012 is described together with complementary laws such as customer compensation for long outages. The regulator’s rule is to provide incentives for cost efficient operation with acceptable reliability and reasonable tariff levels. Another difficult task for the regulator is to settle the complexity, i.e. the balance between considering many details and the manageability. Two performed studies of the former regulatory model, included in this thesis, were part of the criticism that led to its fall. Furthermore, based on results from a project included here, initiated by the regulator to review a model to judge effectible costs, the regulator changed some initial plans concerning the upcoming regulation.

 

A classification of the risk management divided into separate categories is proposed partly based on a study investigating investment planning and risk management at a distribution system operator (DSO). A vulnerability analysis method using quantitative reliability analyses is introduced aimed to indicate how available resources could be better utilized and to evaluate whether additional security should be deployed for certain forecasted events. To evaluate the method, an application study has been performed based on hourly weather measurements and detailed failure reports over eight years for two DS. Months, weekdays and hours have been compared and the vulnerability of several weather phenomena has been evaluated. Of the weather phenomena studied, heavy snowfall and strong winds significantly affect the reliability, while frost, rain and snow depth have low or no impact. The main conclusion is that there is a need to implement new, more advanced, analysis methods. The thesis also provides a statistical validation method and introduces a new category of reliability indices, RT.

Abstract [sv]

Distribution av elektricitet är att betrakta som ett naturligt monopol och är med stor sannolikhet det moderna samhällets viktigaste infrastruktur – och dess betydelse förutspås öka ytterligare i takt med implementering av teknik ämnad att minska mänsklighetens klimatpåverkan. I Sverige finns det fler än 150 elnätsbolag, vilka är av varierande storleksordning och med helt olika ägarstrukturer. Tidigare var handel med elektricitet integrerat i elnätsbolagens verksamhet, men 1996 avreglerades denna; infrastruktur för överföring separerades från produktion och handel. Införandet av kvalitetsreglering av elnätstariffer under början av 2000-talet och hårdare lagar om bland annat kundavbrottsersättning samt politiskt- och medialt tryck har givit incitament till kostnadseffektivitet med bibehållen god leveranskvalitet. En viktig aspekt är att eldistribution har, jämfört med andra infrastrukturer, flera speciella egenskaper som måste beaktas, vilket beskrives i avhandlingens första del tillsammans med introduktion av risk- och tillförlitlighetsteori samt ekonomisk teori.  Två studier som kan ha bidragit till den förra regleringens fall och en studie vars resultat ändrat reglermyndighetens initiala idé avseende modell för att beräkna påverkbara kostnader i kommande förhandsreglering från 2012 är inkluderade.

 

Av staten utsedd myndighet övervakar att kunder erbjudes elnätsanslutning och att tjänsten uppfyller kvalitetskrav samt att tariffnivåerna är skäliga och icke diskriminerande. Traditionellt har elnätsföretag mer eller mindre haft tillåtelse till intäkter motsvarande samtliga omkostnader och skälig vinst, så kallad självkostnadsprissättning. Under slutet av 1990-talet började ansvarig myndighet emellertid arbeta mot en reglering av intäktsram som även beaktar kostnadseffektivitet och kundkvalitet. Vid utformande av en sådan reglering måste svåra avvägningar göras. Exempelvis bör elnätsföretags objektiva förutsättningar, såsom terräng och kunder, tas i beaktning samtidigt som modellen bör vara lätthanterlig och konsekvent. Myndigheten ansåg ingen existerande reglermodell vara lämplig att anpassa till svenska förhållanden, så en ny modell utvecklades: Nätnyttomodellen (NNM). För 2003 års tariffer användes denna och beslut om krav på återbetalning till berörda elnätskunder togs, vilka överklagades. En utdragen juridisk process inleddes, där modellen kritiserades hårt av branschen på flera punkter. Två, i avhandlingen inkluderade studier, underbyggde kritisk argumentation mot NNM. Beslut i första instans (Länsrätt) hade inte tagits 2008 då parterna kom överens avseende år 2003-2007. Ett EU-direktiv tvingar Sverige att gå över till förhandsreglering, och i stället för att modifiera NNM och fortsätta strida juridiskt för den, togs beslut att ta fram en helt ny modell. Nätföretagens tillåtna intäktsram kommer förenklat grunda sig på elnätsföretagens kapitalkostnader och löpande kostnader. Därtill, utifrån hur effektivt och med vilken kvalitet nätföretagen bedrivit sin verksamhet, kan tillåten intäktsram justeras.

 

En systematisk beskrivning av ett elnätsföretags nuvarande riskhantering och investeringsstrategier för olika spänningsnivåer tillhandahålles med syfte att stödja elnätsföretag i utvecklandet av riskhantering och att ge akademiskt referensmaterial baserat på branscherfarenhet. En klassificering av riskhantering uppdelat i olika kategorier och en sårbarhetsanalysmetod samt en ny tillförlitlighetsindexkategori (RT) föreslås i avhandlingen, delvis baserat på genomförd studie. Sårbarhetsanalysens övergripande idé är att identifiera och utvärdera möjliga systemtillstånd med hjälp av kvantitativa tillförlitlighetsanalyser. Målet är att detta skall vara ett verktyg för att nyttja tillgängliga resurser effektivare, t.ex. förebyggande underhåll och semesterplanering samt för att bedöma om förebyggande åtgärder baserat på väderprognoser vore lämpligt. RT är en flexibel kategori av mått på sannolikhet för kundavbrott ≥T timmar, vilket exempelvis är användbart för analys av kundavbrottsersättningslagars påverkan; sådana har exempelvis införts i Sverige och UK under 2000-talet. En statistisk valideringsmetod av tillförlitlighetsindex har tagits fram för att uppskatta statistisk osäkerhet som funktion av antal mätdata ett tillförlitlighetsindexvärde är baseras på.

 

För att utvärdera introducerad sårbarhetsanalysmetod har en studie utförts baserat på timvisa väderdata och detaljerad avbrottsstatistik avseende åtta år för två olika eldistributionsnät i Sverige. Månader, veckodagar och timmar har jämförts vars resultat exempelvis kan användas för fördelning av resurser mer effektivt över tid. Sårbarhet med avseende på olika väderfenomen har utvärderats. Av de studerade väderfenomen är det blott ymnigt snöfall och hårda vindar, särskilt i kombination, som signifikant påverkar eldistributionssystems tillförlitlighet. Andra studier har visat på sårbarhet även för blixtnedslag (som ej fanns med som parameter i avhandlingen inkluderad studie). Temperatur (t.ex. inverkan av frost), regn och snödjup har således försumbar påverkan. Korrelationsstudier har utförts vilket bland annat visar på ett nästan linjärt samband i Sverige mellan temperatur och elförbrukning, vilket indirekt indikerar att även elförbrukning har försumbar påverkan på leveranskvalitet. Slutligen föreslås ett analysramverk som introducerad sårbarhetsanalys skulle vara en del av. Övergripande idé presenteras, vilket främst skall inspirera för fortsatt arbete; emellertid bör påpekas att introducerad sårbarhetsanalysmetod är en självständig och färdig metod oavsett om föreslagna idéer genomföres eller ej. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xiii, 108 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2011:022
Keyword [en]
asset management, correlation studies, incentives, investment planning, maintenance planning, power distribution, reliability analysis, risk management, statistical validation, tariff regulation, vulnerability analysis, weather states
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Probability Theory and Statistics Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37310ISBN: 978-91-7415-888-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-37310DiVA: diva2:433030
Public defence
2011-09-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110815Available from: 2011-08-15 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2011-08-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Risk and reliability assessment for electrical distribution systems and impacts of regulations with examples from Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk and reliability assessment for electrical distribution systems and impacts of regulations with examples from Sweden
2010 (English)In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, Vol. 1, no 2, 87-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The introduction of performance based tariff regulations, and higher media and political pressure have increased the need for well-performed asset management in the operation and planning of electrical distribution systems. In this paper quantitative reliability assessment methods are proposed as a tool to meet these new incentives. Electrical distribution systems have compared to other technical systems several special characteristics which are important to take into consideration when introducing reliability analysis methods. Moreover, the paper gives a brief discussion on the effects and the importance of customer participation in improving system reliability by providing additional system operating reserve from the market perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the reliability analysis with the reliability test systems, and stresses the usefulness of generally known test systems for such assessments. The ideas of future work on development of these test systems to address the changing power systems are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2010
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33495 (URN)10.1007/s13198-010-0017-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-79952488701 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110708Available from: 2011-07-08 Created: 2011-05-09 Last updated: 2012-02-23Bibliographically approved
2. Vulnerability Analysis of Power Distribution Systems for Cost-effective Resource Allocation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerability Analysis of Power Distribution Systems for Cost-effective Resource Allocation
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 27, no 1, 224-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a method to allocate resources in power distribution planning and also introduces a new reliability index category, RT, flexibility to adjust to different laws or DSO policies of long outages. Possible legal consequences for distribution system operators are first identified and studied. A vulnerability-analysis method is introduced, including a statistical validation. The overall idea is to identify and evaluate possible states of power distribution systems using quantitative reliability analyses. Results should thus indicate how available resources (both human recourses and equipment) could be better utilized, e.g. in maintenance and holiday scheduling and in evaluating whether additional security should be deployed for certain forecasted weather conditions.

To evaluate the method, an application study has been performed based on hourly weather measurements and about 65 000 detailed failure reports over eight years for two distribution systems in Sweden. Months, weekdays and hours have been compared and the vulnerability of several weather phenomena in these areas has been evaluated. Of the weather phenomena studied, only heavy snowfall and strong winds, especially in combination, significantly affect the reliability. Temperature (frost), rain and snow depth have a relatively low or no impact. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2012
Keyword
Management decision-making, Power distribution, Reliability, Risk analysis, Weather forecasting
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37305 (URN)10.1109/TPWRS.2011.2165226 (DOI)000299506300024 ()2-s2.0-84856294841 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120227

Available from: 2011-08-08 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Learning from Experiences of the prior Swedish Electrical Distribution System Regulation: Reference Material when Developing the Future Regulatory Incentives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning from Experiences of the prior Swedish Electrical Distribution System Regulation: Reference Material when Developing the Future Regulatory Incentives
2010 (English)In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe), 2010 IEEE PES, IEEE , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The electric power system is under an extensive development phase. This change is today normally expressed in the concept of Smart Grid. It captures different developments for a sustainable electric power system, e.g. including large changes at the electrical distribution level with new features for electricity customers. One move in these changes is the larger role of the regulator. In Sweden, a performance based regulatory model was introduced in 2003 as a tool to support in judging if the distribution system operators (DSOs) was charging the customers the right level of tariffs. The model was referred to as the Network Performance Assessment Model (NPAM). The NPAM was an international unique and innovative regulatory tool. The model evaluated tariffs by enter several system data to a computer program which produce a fictive network with the aim of having the same objective conditions as the real system. However, the NPAM was strongly criticized and since 2009 formally abandoned and a new regulation will be introduced 2012. Moreover, the NPAM not support climate incentives such as low losses, which will be a challenge when adopting a smart grid perspective into the regulation of distribution system tariffs in the future. The authors of this paper have followed the development of this model, and have a unique insight in the complexity behind the model. No stringent description of the NPAM is available. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing an overall picture of the NPAM including hitherto unpublished details on underlying theory. This could hopefully inspire and give a reference when developing regulations in different countries in the future by learning from its novelties as well as from its drawbacks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2010
Keyword
Incentives, Performance-based regulation, Reference networks, Regulatory models
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33496 (URN)10.1109/ISGTEUROPE.2010.5638928 (DOI)2-s2.0-78650544722 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-8509-3 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE ISGT Europe 2010
Note
© 2010 IEEE. Personal use of the attached pdf is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. QC 20110708Available from: 2011-07-08 Created: 2011-05-09 Last updated: 2012-02-23Bibliographically approved
4. Laws And Regulations Of Swedish Power Distribution Systems 1996-2012: learning from novel approaches such as less good experiences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laws And Regulations Of Swedish Power Distribution Systems 1996-2012: learning from novel approaches such as less good experiences
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper gives an overview of a turbulent time for the regulator and distribution system operators (DSO) in Sweden since the de-regulation of the electricity market in 1996. A performance based ex-post model was introduced 2003 as a tool to judge distribution system tariffs. This model is since 2009 formally abandoned and a new exante regulation will be introduced in 2012. The aim of this paper is to learn from both unique and novel approaches such as less good experiences. The paper desccribes the history, the current situation and planed future regulations and desccribes additional relevant laws.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33497 (URN)
Conference
CIRED Workshop 2010 Lyon
Note
QC 20110708Available from: 2011-07-08 Created: 2011-05-09 Last updated: 2012-02-23Bibliographically approved
5. A Sensitivity Study of the Swedish Network Performance Assessment Model Investigating the Effects of Changes in Input Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Sensitivity Study of the Swedish Network Performance Assessment Model Investigating the Effects of Changes in Input Data
2007 (English)In: 19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CIRED), CIRED , 2007, 1-4 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper present results from a sensitivity study of the Network Performance Assessment Model (NPAM) as an effect of changes in input data. The NPAM estimates a cost corresponding to operate a fictive reference network, so called network performance assessment (NPA). This value is then compared with the revenue. Small changes have been implemented at the customer data level for real electrical distribution systems e.g. moving a low-voltage customer a few meters. Results show on that the NPA could differ up to 7 million Euros. The main conclusion is that a small divergence in input data could result in significant differences in the output data from the NPAM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CIRED, 2007
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8310 (URN)
Conference
19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Vienna, 21-24 May 2007
Note
QC 20101125Available from: 2012-02-03 Created: 2008-04-30 Last updated: 2012-02-03Bibliographically approved
6. Investigation of the robustness of the Swedish network performance assessment model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the robustness of the Swedish network performance assessment model
2008 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, Vol. 23, no 2, 773-780 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish energy agency (STEM) has developed a regulatory model to supervise the revenues of the distribution system operators (DSO). The model is referred to as the network performance assessment model (NPAM). The NPAM calculates customer values for a fictive electrical distribution system, with a total cost referred to as the network performance assessment (NPA). The debiting rate for a DSO is defined by the quotient of the revenue and the NPA. If the debiting rate is higher than a certain value, the DSO is placed under review and could be forced to pay back revenue to customers. A lawsuit is currently in progress on this use of the NPAM. This paper shows results from a comprehensive sensitiveness study of the NPAM investigating the robustness of the model. The investigation shows that the model is not robust, since small stochastic variations in input data could lead to larger differences in the results than those from the model. For example, it is shown that a five-meter difference in the coordinates of the nodes in the reference system could result in a difference of 5 million Euros, i.e., approximately US $6.5 million. The understanding of weaknesses in the NPAM presented in this paper provides an important means for future developments of regulatory models in the world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2008
Keyword
customer value, electrical distribution system, network performance, assessment model (NPAM), outage cost, performance-based regulation, probability, redundancy, reference networks, regulatory model, robustness and reliability
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17785 (URN)10.1109/tpwrs.2008.919247 (DOI)000258765900057 ()2-s2.0-43849108726 (Scopus ID)
Note
© 2008 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. QC 20100525Available from: 2012-01-27 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2012-01-27Bibliographically approved
7. The potential of Using EQUIVALENT COMPARISON STANDARDS to judge EFFECTIBLE COSTS in Electrical Distribution tariff regulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential of Using EQUIVALENT COMPARISON STANDARDS to judge EFFECTIBLE COSTS in Electrical Distribution tariff regulation
2011 (English)In: CIRED2011, Frankfurt 6-9 June 2011, Paper 0646, CIRED , 2011, 1-4 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sweden will implement a new tariff regulation from 2012. This paper presents results from a project initiated by the Swedish regulator, performed by the RCAM (Reliability Centered Asset Management) research group aimed to review the potential of using equivalent comparison standards to judge effectible costs. The study includes interviews and surveys distributed to every Swedish distribution system operator (DSO). However, no sharp proposal on units appropriate to use in the first regulatory period (2012-2015) could be provided, due to e.g. large variations in response from the DSOs. The study provides several results such as enabling for all parties to contribute their views before implementation; indication of how current units should be modified; increased knowledge for involved parties and an action plan for future work. The regulator’s initial idea was to apply this kind of model to 25 % of the effectible cost part during the first regulatory period, but based on this study the regulator changed this plan.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CIRED, 2011
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37308 (URN)
Conference
21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Frankfurt, 6-9 June 2011
Note
QC 20110815Available from: 2012-02-03 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2012-02-03Bibliographically approved
8. Review of the Risk Management at a Distribution System Operator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of the Risk Management at a Distribution System Operator
2008 (English)In: 2008 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROBABILISTIC METHODS APPLIED TO POWER SYSTEMS, IEEE , 2008, 90-97 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sweden was re-regulated in 1996 followed by new laws and regulations. These new circumstances have become incentives to adopt more comprehensive and quantitative analysis methods applied on Electrical Distribution Systems (EDS). This paper provides a systematic presentation of the current risk management at a Distribution System Operator (DSO) as an integrated part of the net planning process. The description is complemented by an example and an evaluation including ideas of future developments. Furthermore, the paper gives a definition on the risk concept; investigates how different incentives affect the risk management; describes and discusses similarities and differences between voltage levels. The main objective is to support DSOs in the work of developing risk management and to give academic reference material to utilize industry experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2008
Keyword
Distribution System, Maintenance Management, Project Planning, Regulation, Reliability Analysis, Risk Analysis, Risk Management, Risk Methods
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8307 (URN)000271680900013 ()2-s2.0-70349122518 (Scopus ID)978-1-934325-21-6 (ISBN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, Rincon, PR, MAY 25-29, 2008
Note
QC 20101125Available from: 2012-02-03 Created: 2008-04-30 Last updated: 2012-02-03Bibliographically approved
9. Risk Management Applied to Electrical Distribution Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk Management Applied to Electrical Distribution Systems
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper summarizes results from a research project investigating risk management applied to electrical distribution systems (EDS) in Sweden. New incentives have motivated the distribution system operators (DSOs) to consider more comprehensive analysis methods. The project focuses on investigating long term consequences of different project- and maintenance plans. This paper shortly desccribes related research, incentives, results from an application study and future work. The main conclusion is that there is a trend that DSOs use more complex risk management approaches as a result of new incentives.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33501 (URN)10.1049/cp.2009.0992 (DOI)2-s2.0-70450191904 (Scopus ID)
Conference
CIRED 2009, Prague
Note
QC 20110708Available from: 2011-07-08 Created: 2011-05-09 Last updated: 2012-02-24Bibliographically approved
10. Model of Capacity Demand under uncertain Weather
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model of Capacity Demand under uncertain Weather
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS), IEEE , 2010, 314-318 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Load forecasting is important in the operation of power systems. The characteristics of the electrical energy consumption are analyzed and its variation as an effect of several weather parameters is studied. Based on historical weather and consumption data received from a distribution system operator (DSO), numerical models of load forecasting are suggested according to electrical power consumption and on daily peak power respectively. Two linear regression models are presented: simple linear regression (SLR) with one input variable (temperature) and multiple linear regressions (MLR) with several input variables. The models are validated with historical data from other years. For daily peak power demand a MLR model has the lowest error, but for prediction of energy demand a SLR model is more accurate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2010
Keyword
climate, component, electrical distribution systems, energy consumtion, linear regression, load Forecasting, risk management, weather vulnerability
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33498 (URN)10.1109/PMAPS.2010.5528841 (DOI)2-s2.0-77956428555 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS)
Note
© 2010 IEEE. Personal use of the attached pdf is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. QC 20110708Available from: 2011-07-08 Created: 2011-05-09 Last updated: 2012-02-23Bibliographically approved

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