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Hydrogeology in the Nordic countries
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2008 (English)In: Episodes, ISSN 0705-3797, Vol. 31, no 1, 148-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogeology in the Nordic Countries is characterized by many types of aquifers and great differences in groundwater recharge. Fracture aquifers in crystalline, hard rocks are the most common type of aquifer with, in general, low fracture porosity and low well yields. The most productive crystalline rocks are the basalts in Iceland and the rapakivi granite in Finland. The fracture and fault zones have mostly high conductivity. Porous aquifers are found in various types of geology. The most porous ones are the lava fields and the pyroclastic rocks in the active volcanic zone of Iceland, but glaciofluvial deposits such as eskers and deltas in Finland, Norway and Sweden, outwash plains in SW Denmark and san-durs in Iceland are also very porous and good aquifers, as are some sedimentary rocks in Denmark. The glacial till has, in general, low conductivity. Fractured porous aquifers in consolidated limestones and sandstones have high well yields in relatively young formations in Denmark and Scania in southern Sweden, but medium or low yields in older strata. Karst aquifers have limited extension, but there are some well developed ones in the Caledonian mountain range in Norway and Sweden. Geothermal water with a lot of springs and even geysers are common in Iceland and of great economic importance. The groundwater chemistry of the crystalline, hard rocks is notable for bacteria, brines and mixed water at great depths (more than 500 m) as well as high contents of arsenic, fluoride and radon. in drilled wells in certain regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 31, no 1, 148-154 p.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-38117ISI: 000255771300021ScopusID: 2-s2.0-44649106442OAI: diva2:435961
33rd International Geological Congress Location: Oslo, NORWAY Date: AUG 06-14, 2008Available from: 2011-08-22 Created: 2011-08-22 Last updated: 2011-08-22Bibliographically approved

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