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The substitution principle
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0071-3919
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
2011 (English)In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 59, no 3, 454-460 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to the substitution principle, hazardous chemicals should be replaced by less hazardous alternatives. In this paper, the major issues concerning the more precise definition of the principle are analyzed, and a general purpose definition is proposed. It is claimed that the priority between reducing hazard, functionality and economical considerations in the application of the substitution principle is a matter for adjustment in each particular case that cannot be settled beforehand. None of these objectives can have absolute priority over the others, but the substitution principle is aimed at increasing the priority given to the reduction of hazards to human health and the environment. Major methods to promote and implement the principle are summarized, current legislative approaches are discussed, and proposals for efficient implementation are made. It is emphasized that the primary responsibility for avoiding hazardous substances and processes rests with industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 59, no 3, 454-460 p.
Keyword [en]
Substitution principle, Hazardous chemicals, Chemical risks, Chemicals control, Chemicals policy
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39209DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.01.011ISI: 000288981500012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79952695483OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-39209DiVA: diva2:439651
Available from: 2011-09-08 Created: 2011-09-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemicals in consumer products: Towards a safe and sustainable use
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemicals in consumer products: Towards a safe and sustainable use
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Health and environmental risks associated with emissions of hazardous chemicals from articles, including everyday consumer products such as clothes and toys, have become widely acknowledged internationally, particularly in the EU. This thesis contributes to new understandings of how these risks are currently managed within the EU and recommends actions for ensuring a safe and sustainable use of chemicals in articles.

Paper I provides an overview and comparative analysis of regulatory strategies for managing risks of chemicals in articles in the EU. The in-depth analysis, which is focused on the Toys Safety Directive, the RoHS Directive, and REACH, shows that the legislations differ significantly. Differences include e.g. what criteria are used for the selection of substances to be targeted for regulation, and the kind of requirements and restrictions applied to the selected substances. It is concluded that product-specific directives are important complements to REACH in order to ensure a safe use of chemicals in articles.

Paper II evaluates to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The results show that the majority of the chemicals that are prioritized for phase-out under the WFD or for concentration restrictions in sludge and soil under the SSD are allowed to be used in articles according to REACH. In order to avoid end-of-pipe problems and to increase resource efficiency, it is argued that it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles.

Paper III aims to clarify what the substitution principle means and how it can reasonably be applied as part of chemical policies. A general definition is proposed that gives equal weight to hazard, functionality and economical considerations, while at the same time recognizing that the aim of the substitution principle is to reduce hazards to human health and the environment. This paper also summarizes major methods to promote and implement the principle, discusses legislative approaches with regard to their ability to promote substitution of hazardous chemicals, and makes proposals for an efficient implementation of the principle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. 36 p.
Series
Theses in Risk and Safety from the Division of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1654-627X ; 7
Keyword
consumer products, articles, hazardous chemicals, risk management, chemicals regulation, REACH, substitution, regulatory toxicology, European Union
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104826 (URN)978-91-7501-527-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-11-23, Seminarierum 231, Teknikringen 78 B, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121119

Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-13 Last updated: 2012-11-19Bibliographically approved

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