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A study of combustion and emission formation characteristics during production engine transients using optical diagnostics
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991, Vol. 225, no D9, 1290-1303 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to identify some of the special combustion and emission formation phenomena that occur in a turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine during transient operation, the transient strategy of a production engine has been characterized at four different engine speeds. From each transient some points have been selected for further investigation by recreating these load points as steady-state points in a single-cylinder engine. This allows the emissions to be measured with a high degree of accuracy. An endoscope which makes it possible to evaluate flame temperatures was used in both engines. An empirically derived method of calculating nitric oxide (NO) formation from a combination of measured flame temperature, calculated gas temperature, and heat release rate has been developed and applied. This provides an increased understanding of combustion and emission formation phenomena during transient operation. An optical engine was also used to provide a full combustion chamber view for some of the operating points, and a specially developed software was used to calculate temperature distributions based on high-speed camera colour information. The NO formation formula was applied on these images, which resulted in spatially resolved NO formation distributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 225, no D9, 1290-1303 p.
Keyword [en]
diesel engine transients, NO formation, optical diagnostics, two-colour method
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39535DOI: 10.1177/0954407011407143ISI: 000294265300013Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-80054987713OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-39535DiVA: diva2:440760
Note
QC 20110913Available from: 2011-09-13 Created: 2011-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Methods for Characterization of the Diesel Combustion and Emission Formation Processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for Characterization of the Diesel Combustion and Emission Formation Processes
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis various aspects of the diesel engine fuel injection, combustion and emission formation processes have been evaluated. Several types of evaluation tools and methods have been applied. Fuel spray momentum was used to characterize injection rate and hole-to-hole variations in fuel injectors. Using both instantaneous fuel impulse rates and instantaneous mass flow measurements, spray velocity and nozzle flow parameters were evaluated. Several other hole-to-hole resolved injector characterization methods were used to characterize a set of fuel injectors subjected to long term testing. Fuel injector nozzle hole-to-hole variations were found to have a large influence on engine efficiency and emissions. The degree of hole-to-hole variations for an injector has been shown to correlate well with the performance deterioration of that injector. The formation and atomization of fuel sprays, ignition onset and the development of diffusion flames were studied using an optical engine. Flame temperature evaluations have been made using two different methods. NO-formation depends strongly on flame temperature. By applying a NO-formation evaluation method based on both heat release rate and flame and gas temperature it was possible to achieve a reasonable degree of correlation with measured exhaust emissions for very varying operating conditions. The prediction capability of the NO-formation evaluation method was utilized to evaluate spatially and temporally resolved NO-formation from flame temperature distributions. This made it possible to pinpoint areas with a high degree of NO-formation. It was found that small hot zones in the flames can be responsible for a large part of the total amount of NO that is produced, especially in combustion cases where no EGR is used to lower the flame temperature. By applying optical diagnostics methods the combustion and emission formation phenomena encountered during production engine transients were evaluated. The transient strategy of the engine involved reducing the EGR-rate to zero during the initial parts of the transient. Increased general flame temperature and the occurrence of small hot zones were found to explain the increase in NO-emissions during these transients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 111 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:10
Keyword
diesel engine emissions
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34140 (URN)978-91-7501-037-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-06-08, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20110530Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-26 Last updated: 2011-09-13Bibliographically approved

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Lindström, MikaelWestlund, AndersÅngström, Hans-Erik
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