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Low-grade heat source utilization by carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
2007 (English)In: 2007 Proceedings of the ASME/JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference - HT 2007 Volume 1, 2007, 519-525 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One way to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and mitigate environmental impact is to utilize low-grade heat sources for power production. In this paper, a transcritical carbon dioxide power cycle is analyzed for its potential in utilizing the low-grade heat sources. Solar thermal is selected as a representative of low-grade heat sources. TRNSYS 16(1) and Engineering Equation Solver (EES)(2) are employed using co-solving technique to analyze the dynamic performance of the proposed system. Both daily performance and annual performance of the proposed system under Swedish climate conditions are simulated. The simulation results show that the proposed system can achieve 8% average thermal efficiency and consequently 2.43 kW average power production during the system working period on a randomly selected summer day with a 30 m(2) solar collector. Over the whole year, the maximum daily power production is about 17 kWh and the maximum monthly power production is about 185 kWh.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. 519-525 p.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-41100ISI: 000254029000065Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-43449099448ISBN: 978-0-7918-4274-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-41100DiVA: diva2:443826
Conference
7th ASME/JSME Thermal Engineering and Summer Heat Transfer Conference Location: Vancouver, Canada, Date: JUL 08-12, 2007
Available from: 2011-09-27 Created: 2011-09-23 Last updated: 2011-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Thermodynamic Cycles using Carbon Dioxide as Working Fluid: CO2 transcritical power cycle study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodynamic Cycles using Carbon Dioxide as Working Fluid: CO2 transcritical power cycle study
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The interest in utilizing the energy in low‐grade heat sources and waste heat is increasing. There is an abundance of such heat sources, but their utilization today is insufficient, mainly due to the limitations of the conventional power cycles in such applications, such as low efficiency, bulky size or moisture at the expansion outlet (e.g. problems for turbine blades).

Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely investigated for use as a working fluid in refrigeration cycles, because it has no ozonedepleting potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP). It is also inexpensive, non‐explosive, non‐flammable and abundant in nature. At the same time, CO2 has advantages in use as a working fluid in low‐grade heat resource recovery and energy conversion from waste heat, mainly because it can create a better matching to the heat source temperature profile in the supercritical region to reduce the irreversibility during the heating process. Nevertheless, the research in such applications is very limited.

This study investigates the potential of using carbon dioxide as a working fluid in power cycles for low‐grade heat source/waste heat recovery.

At the beginning of this study, basic CO2 power cycles, namely carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle, carbon dioxide Brayton cycle and carbon dioxide cooling and power combined cycle were simulated and studied to see their potential in different applications (e.g. low‐grade heat source applications, automobile applications and heat and power cogeneration applications). For the applications in automobile industries, low pressure drop on the engine’s exhaust gas side is crucial to not reducing the engine’s performance. Therefore, a heat exchanger with low‐pressure drop on the secondary side (i.e. the gas side) was also designed, simulated and tested with water and engine exhaust gases at the early stage of the study (Appendix 2).

The study subsequently focused mainly on carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle, which has a wide range of applications. The performance of the carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle has been simulated and compared with the other most commonly employed power cycles in lowgrade heat source utilizations, i.e. the Organic Rankin Cycle (ORC). Furthermore, the annual performance of the carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle in utilizing the low‐grade heat source (i.e. solar) has also been simulated and analyzed with dynamic simulation in this work.

Last but not least, the matching of the temperature profiles in the heat exchangers for CO2 and its influence on the cycle performance have also been discussed. Second law thermodynamic analyses of the carbon dioxide transcritical power systems have been completed.

The simulation models have been mainly developed in the software known as Engineering Equation Solver (EES)1 for both cycle analyses and computer‐aided heat exchanger designs. The model has also been connected to TRNSYS for dynamic system annual performance simulations. In addition, Refprop 7.02 is used for calculating the working fluid properties, and the CFD tool (COMSOL) 3 has been employed to investigate the particular phenomena influencing the heat exchanger performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology(KTH), 2011. xxii, 128 p.
Series
Trita-REFR, ISSN 1102-0245 ; 11:03
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50261 (URN)978-91-7501-187-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-09, M2, Brinellvägen 64, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111205Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-12-04 Last updated: 2011-12-09Bibliographically approved

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