Fuel-Efficient Distributed Control for Heavy Duty Vehicle Platooning
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Freight transport demand has escalated and will continue to do so as economiesgrow. As the traﬃc intensity increases, the drivers are faced with increasinglycomplex tasks and traﬃc safety is a growing issue. Simultaneously, fossil fuel usageis escalating. Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) platooning is a plausible solution to theseissues. Even though there has been a need for introducing automated HDV platooningsystems for several years, they have only recently become possible to implement.Advancements in on-board and external technology have ushered in new possibilitiesto aid the driver and enhance the system performance. Each vehicle is able to serveas an information node through wireless communication; enabling a cooperativenetworked transportation system. Thereby, vehicles can semi-autonomously travel atshort intermediate spacings, eﬀectively reducing congestion, relieving driver tension,improving fuel consumption and emissions without compromising safety.
This thesis presents contributions to a framework for the design and implementation of HDV platooning. The focus lies mainly on establishing and validating realconstraints for fuel optimal control for platooning vehicles. Nonlinear and linearvehicle models are presented together with a system architecture, which dividesthe complex problem into manageable subsystems. The fuel reduction potentialis investigated through simulation models and experimental results derived fromstandard vehicles traveling on a Swedish highway. It is shown through analyticaland experimental results that it is favorable with respect to the fuel consumption tooperate the vehicles at a much shorter intermediate spacing than what is currentlydone in commercially available systems. The results show that a maximum fuelreduction of 4.7–7.7 % depending on the inter-vehicle time gap, at a set speedof 70 km/h, can be obtained without compromising safety. A systematic designmethodology for inter-vehicle distance control is presented based on linear quadraticregulators (LQRs). The structure of the controller feedback matrix can be tailoredto the locally available state information. The results show that a decentralizedcontroller gives good tracking performance, a robust system and lowers the controleﬀort downstream in the platoon. It is also shown that the design methodologyproduces a string stable system for an arbitrary number of vehicles in the platoon,if the vehicle conﬁgurations and the LQR weighting parameters are identical for theconsidered subsystems.
With the results obtained in this thesis, it is argued that a vast fuel reductionpotential exists for HDV platooning. Present commercial systems can be enhancedsigniﬁcantly through the introduction of wireless communication and decentralizedoptimal control.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , ix, 97 p.
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2011:059
Optimal Control, Heavy Duty Vehicle, Platooning, Fuel, Reachability, Game Theory
National CategoryControl Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42378ISBN: 978-91-7501-095-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-42378DiVA: diva2:447050
2011-10-07, Q2, Osquldas v. 10, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Smith, Roy, Professor
Johansson, Karl, ProfessorGattami, Ather, Ph.D, Assistant Professor
QC 201110122011-10-122011-10-102011-10-12Bibliographically approved