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A Rational Exergy Management Model for Curbing Building CO2 Emissions
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
2007 (English)In: ASHRAE Transactions, ISSN 0001-2505, Vol. 113, no 2, 113-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A rational exergy management model was developed, which establishes a common metric and provides a tool for matching the exergy of energy sources with different applications in the built environment for global sustainability. In order to develop and evaluate this model, first a base case was defined, which involves a building using a natural gas boiler for comfort heating and receiving electricity from a remote thermal power plant. For the base case, the rational exergy management efficiency, which is a measure of the level of match in the supply and demand of exergy, is only 4%. To analyze the impact of increasing the rational exergy efficiency on carbon mitigation relative to the base case, three exergy and environment aware cases were considered. These cases were: the same building thermally linked to the power plant through a district energy system (Case One), the same building with a micro CHP using a natural gas internal combustion engine (Case Two), and the same building with a renewable energy driven electric power generator and a ground-source heat pump (Case Three). A detailed analysis of the carbon reduction potential of the three cases revealed that it is possible to realize a new CO2 reducing wedge in addition to the seven wedges that have already been identified by the Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI). Calculations show that Case Three may reduce the global emissions to about 6 GtC/year by the year 2055 from the current value of 7 GtC/year. Therefore, the eighth wedge may not only help to stabilize the current levels of emissions but also decrease it below the current level. This paper explains the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), its emission projections, and describes the three cases in detail. Results indicate the importance of rational exergy management for global sustainability and next-generation green buildings and show that this metric can manage a robust roadmap to curb CO2 emissions from buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlanta: ASHRAE , 2007. Vol. 113, no 2, 113-123 p.
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42460ISI: 000253310400013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-42460DiVA: diva2:447124
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111012Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Rational Exergy Management Model to Curb CO2 Emissions in the Exergy-Aware Built Environments of the Future
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Rational Exergy Management Model to Curb CO2 Emissions in the Exergy-Aware Built Environments of the Future
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis puts forth the means of a strategic approach to address a persistent problem in the energy system and in this way, to transition the built environment to a future state that is more exergy-aware to curb CO2 emissions. Such a vision is made possible by the six-fold contributions of the research work: I) An analytical model is developed, which for the first time, formulates the CO2 emissions that are compounded in the energy system as a function of the systematic failures to match the supply and demand of exergy. This model is namely the Rational Exergy Management Model or REMM. II) REMM is then applied to analyze the pathways in which it is possible to lead the built environment into addressing structural overshoots in its exergy supply to curb CO2 emissions. The cases that embody these pathways are also analyzed over a base case, including cases for sustainable heating and cooling. III) New tools are designed to augment decision-making and exemplify a paradigm shift in the more rational usage of exergy to curb CO2 emissions. These include a scenario-based analysis tool, new options for CO2 wedges, and a multi-fold solution space for CO2 mitigation strategies based on REMM. IV) The concept of a net-zero exergy building (NZEXB) is developed and related to REMM strategies as the building block of an exergy-aware energy system. The target of a NZEXB is further supported by key design principles, which address shortcomings in state-of-the-art net-zero design. V) A premier building that deployed the key design principles to integrate building technology in an innovative, exergy-aware design and received LEED Platinum is analyzed on the basis of the NZEXB target. The results validate that this building boosts net self-sufficiency and curbs compound CO2 emissions, which are then presented in a proposed scheme to benchmark and/or label future NZEXBs. VI) Based on the scalability of the best-practices of the NZEXB ready building, the means to realize a smarter energy system that has exergy-aware relations in each aspect of the value chain to curb CO2 emissions are discussed. This includes a target for such a network at the community level, namely a net-zero exergy community (NZEXC). As a whole, the results of the thesis indicate that the strategic approach as provided by REMM and the NZEXB target of the research work has the potential to steer the speed and direction of societal action to curb CO2 emissions. The thesis concludes with a roadmap that represents a cyclical series of actions that may be scaled-up at various levels of the built environment in a transition to be in better balance with the Planet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. x, 74 p.
Series
Meddelande. Institutionen för byggvetenskap, ISSN 1651-5563 ; 204
Keyword
Exergy, CO2 emissions, built environment, buildings, energy system, scenario-based analysis, mitigation strategies, net-zero, LEED, energy transition, transition management
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42469 (URN)978-91-7501-129-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-09, sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-14 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved

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