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Engineering Quality Feelings: Applications in products, service environments and work systems
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics. (Ergonomi)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contemporary quality issues in product design are moving from materialistic to emotional user fulfillment; comprehensive research is needed to examine quality product feelings. This research is directed toward a deeper understanding of user and customer quality feelings for different product types, including services.

The quality feelings concept includes dimensions of product quality, especially functionality, ergonomics and aesthetics. The first objective of this thesis is to identify, prioritize and synthesize quality feelings into product attributes in product development applications. The second objective is to explore, test and propose methodological approaches for designing quality feelings into products.

Several methods from psychology, ergonomics, statistics and probabilistic methods and heuristics were applied to achieve the objectives. From a methodological viewpoint, Likert scales, free elicitation technique and Just About Right scales were applied for data collection. Multiple Regression, Factor Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, Genetic algorithms, Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Rough Sets (RS) were applied for data analyses. For ergonomic product evaluations, direct observations, 3D workload simulations, time and frequency analyses were conducted.

Five product applications are included in this thesis: operator driver cabin design of reach trucks, steering wheel design trigger switch design in right-angled nutrunners, bed-making systemsproducts and waiting room environments.

Heuristic methods were found effective when there is a high number of product attributes that interact to provide quality feelings. RS results are consistent with PLS attribute predictions. When the number of product attributes is large in comparison to the number of observations, PLS extracts informative results for quality feelings. The RS method is effective in identifying interactions among design attributes.

Quality feelings are associated with both tangible (tactile characteristics) and intangible (quick and easy to use) product characteristics. Words such as safety, functionality, ergonomics, comfort, reliability, supportiveness, usability, feedback, pleasantness, attractiveness, durability and distinctiveness describe quality feelings from tangible products and services. Based on product type, the quality dimensions represented by these words possess different interactions and dependencies. In work environments, products act as prostheses between workers for social interaction, which need to be considered as important quality feelings dimensions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xiv, 155 p.
Series
Trita-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 11:5
Keyword [en]
ew product development, ergonomics evaluation design for quality, Affective Engineering, servicescape design, product experience
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43388OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-43388DiVA: diva2:448208
Public defence
2011-10-31, 3-221, Alfred Nobel`s Alle 10, Huddinge, 13:19 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111017Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-14 Last updated: 2011-10-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Designing Quality feelings in Reach Trucks: A Kansei Engineering Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing Quality feelings in Reach Trucks: A Kansei Engineering Approach
2006 (English)In: 9th International Quality Management for Organizational Development (QMOD ) Conference, August 9-11, Liverpool, England, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today’s markets, as the debate on customer oriented product development gets more intense, designing “Quality Feeling” in a product gain more and more importance. The basic objective of this study was to identify and analyze aspects of “Quality feeling” in a reach truck operator cabin. Kansei Engineering methodology was applied to research, how each component representing a reach truck operator cabin evoke quality feeling and how users experience quality feeling. Kansei Engineering (KE) is a consumer-oriented technology that aims to transfer customer’s perceptions, feelings and mental images into a tangible product. Quality feeling as a Kansei concept has investigated for two levels of perception in the study. The first level is comprised of Kansei words that are assumed to represent the feeling of quality for the reach truck`s operator cabin components. The second level is more general compared to the first one and concerns the views for direct Quality feeling representation of components. Forty-seven subjects evaluated eight operator cabin components of a reach truck on 7-degree SD scale, involving 20 Kansei words that represent the quality feeling. Reliability, Factor and Multivariate Regression Analyses were applied to the data gathered. The results showed that reach truck operator cabin components give rise to different perceived dimensions of quality feeling. The method used in the application moreover showed the most important operator cabin components in terms of their contribution to Total quality feeling for the reach truck. In conclusion the approach presented within this study can assist to determine user preferences and help product evelopers and designers to reflect quality feeling and other concepts.

Keyword
Perceived Quality; Affective Engineering; Fork Lift, Quality Kansei
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43408 (URN)
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-14 Created: 2011-10-14 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. Developing Software Tools for Kansei Engineering Processes: Kansei Engineering Software (KESo) and a Design Support System Based on Genetic Algorithm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing Software Tools for Kansei Engineering Processes: Kansei Engineering Software (KESo) and a Design Support System Based on Genetic Algorithm
2006 (English)In: 9th International Quality Management for Organizational Development (QMOD) Conference, August 9-11, Liverpool, England, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Launching products successfully onto today’s markets requires not only good quality and usability for a reasonable price but also that the customer gets a good subjective impression of the product. This is especially true for mature products, which tend to be rather similar to competing products. Designing a good feeling into products is a challenge many companies face today. A new research field is named emotional design or affective engineering. One method within this field is Kansei Engineering, a methodology that can quantify user impressions mathematically. A general procedure for conducting Kansei Engineering studies has been proposed, but still much expert knowledge is necessary for those studies. Therefore, software tools facilitating this process have been developed. In this paper, two tools used at Linköping University are presented. It can be seen that those tools deliver good results and remove many obstacles for applying Kansei Engineering in companies. However, more research is needed on the theoretical bases and extraction methods.

Keyword
Affective Engineering, Emotional Design, Tool, KESo, Genetic Algorithm, Decision Support, Design Support
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43409 (URN)
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-14 Created: 2011-10-14 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. Affective Design of Waiting Areas in Primary Healthcare
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective Design of Waiting Areas in Primary Healthcare
2008 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – This paper seeks to deal with affective design of waiting areas (servicescapes) and has twofold aims. The first, is to explore affective values for waiting areas. The second, is to identify interactions between physical design attributes and affective values.

Design/methodology/approach – This study included a free association method for data collection, applying Kansei engineering methodology to extract design solutions relating to specific feelings. The study was undertaken at six primary health centres in Östergötland County, Sweden. In total, 88 participants (60 patients and 28 staff) were interviewed.

Findings – The selected waiting areas show significant differences for their perceived affective qualities. The most desired feeling for creating affective values is found to be “calm”. The core design attributes contributing to this feeling are privacy, colours, child play-areas and green plants. Good design of lighting, seating arrangements and a low sound level are also important design attributes to give a more complete design solution.

Research limitations/implications – The study provides useful insights for understanding affective needs in servicescapes, and it provides design suggestions. The results have not been analysed separately for gender or different age groups.

Practical implications – The paper proposes a framework model to be applied when dealing with affective values in servicescapes.

Originality/value – This paper makes an original contribution to understand affective values towards the physical environment in servicescape design. It offers a methodology to study complex environments with many alternative design solutions using limited resources. Moreover, this study uses a combination of a free association method and Rough Sets theory in affective design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emarald, 2008
Keyword
Kansei values, perceived quality, Rough Sets analysis, Correspondence analysis, health centres
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43415 (URN)10.1108/17542730810881366 (DOI)2-s2.0-46249091700 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20111017Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Identifying trigger feeling factors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying trigger feeling factors
2010 (English)In: International Conference on Kansei Engineeringand Emotional Research (KEER), Paris, France, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Trigger mechanism design in power hand tools is of great importance for communicating with the operator and for providing feedback on operational functioning. Therefore, for a successful power hand tool design, knowledge about how the trigger mechanism feels is required.

This study aims to define and investigate the design factors related with trigger tactile feeling for electrical right angled nutrunners. A Kansei Engineering (Affective Engineering) study has been conducted for a comparison between users´ (operators that work at an automotive assembly plant) and product developers´ (product development group of a power hand tool manufacturer) to find common and differing semantic expression dimensions for that. 124 Kansei words (descriptors) were collected from literature, interviews and workshops. These words were reduced to 52 by affinity analysis and evaluated by operators and product developers using semantic differential technique.

From the operator group`s responses six factors (explain 87% of variation ) were extracted as, “professional performance”, “safety and tactile feeling”, “usability”, “smooth operation”, ”communication and durability”, “convenient and comfortable” to define trigger feeling. Correspondingly, five factors (explain 89% of variation) “robust and appealing”, “ergonomics and operator performance”, “controllability and predictability”, “creativity and modern” and“powerful” were distinguished for the product development group. Results showed that the start phase and especially quick start of trigger mechanism is more important to operators, while end feedback is more important to product developers. Soft start of the trigger is correlated with ergonomics, optimal, clear operation and performance for product developers while soft start together with end feedback are associated with well-built, convenient and safe trigger characteristics for operators. According to the results from average ratings the Kansei word “ergonomic” has been rated as the most important descriptor for trigger feeling together with “user-friendly”, “easy to use”, “long life time” and “comfortable” for both groups. By developing a questionnaire using the factors and variables identified; this questionnaire can be used to assess views of operators about trigger functioning and to know how do operators feel about new types of trigger mechanisms.

Keyword
Product development, semantic meaning, switch design, powered hand tools
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43449 (URN)
Conference
KEER2010
Note
QC 20111017Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
5. Kansei/Affective Engineering Applied to Triggers in Powered Tools
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kansei/Affective Engineering Applied to Triggers in Powered Tools
2011 (English)In: Kansei/Affective Engineering / [ed] Nagamachi, Mitsuo, CRC , 2011, 275-293 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC, 2011
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43452 (URN)10.1201/EBK1439821336-11 (DOI)978-1-4398-2134-3 (Local ID)978-1-4398-2133-6 (ISBN)978-1-4398-2134-3 (Archive number)978-1-4398-2134-3 (OAI)
Note
QC 20111017Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
6. Affective engineering evaluation of non-linear trigger switch mechanisms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective engineering evaluation of non-linear trigger switch mechanisms
2011 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The trigger switch mechanisms of nutrunners are important for operators to perceive feedback while tightening bolt joints. Previous studies focus on associations between discomfort evaluations and powered tool operation. This paper addresses how operator preferences are linked with functionality requirements from trigger switch mechanisms. Subjects evaluated five switch mechanism prototypes regarding perceptions of quality, feedback, firmness, and distinctness. Results suggest that loading and unloading phases of trigger operation are significant predictors of perceptions of quality. The trigger switch mechanism with a combination of high peak-drop-bottom forces was perceived with better quality, feedback, and distinctness in comparison to the other mechanisms. The study also revealed that when the switch mechanism was designed to give more distinctness and feedback, higher quality is perceived.

Keyword
Ergonomics; rough set; product design.
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43454 (URN)
Note
QS 20120316Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. An Affective Engineering Assessment of a Hospital Bedding System Innovation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Affective Engineering Assessment of a Hospital Bedding System Innovation
2011 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Developing bedding products requires consideration of human-product interactions such as usability and quality aspects besides ergonomics and productivity. Previous studies focus on finding associations between discomfort evaluations and physiological measurements of conventional bedding. The purpose of this study is to assess a new bedding system by observing affective and discomfort perceptions, physical loads, and time usage by nursing personnel. Fourteen nursese valuated a conventional and a new bedding system. Results suggest that nurses’ quality perceptions and overall experiences with the new bedding were positive. Considering physical loads the average time and frequency of bending forward were significantly lower for the new bedding versus conventional bedding. The time analysis yielded significant improvements to make a bed with the new bedmaking system. Quality perceptions were associated with tactile qualities (e.g. soft, nice to touch, etc.) and applicability (e.g. quick setup) for both bedmaking systems.

Keyword
Hospital, healthcare, 3DSSPP, PLS; new product testing
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43457 (URN)
Note
QS 20120316Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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