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Welfare effects of Stockholm congestion charges using dynamic network assignment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9235-0232
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3738-9318
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, Glasgow, UK, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogenous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and behavioural adjustments in the temporal dimensions. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic model with heterogeneous users in a large-scale network, we find that drivers as a group benefit directly from the charging scheme in Stockholm. This paper investigates the importance of the three factors omitted in the standard textbook and the static model analysis in the Stockholm case, finding that all three add significantly to the benefit of the charges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Glasgow, UK, 2011.
Keyword [en]
Congestion charges, Congestion pricing, Road pricing, Acceptability, Evaluation, Urban transport policy, Mobility management, Transport externalities, Policy implementation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43731OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-43731DiVA: diva2:448780
Conference
European Transport Conference
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20111019

Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2016-06-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Congestion Charging in Urban Networks: Modelling Issues and Simulated Effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Congestion Charging in Urban Networks: Modelling Issues and Simulated Effects
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the major challenges cities face today, in their development towards sustainable urban areas, is the need for an efficient and environmentally friendly transport system. This transport system should manage to tie together the city without strong adverse impact on urban environment, air-quality and climate change. The specialized labour (and leisure) market, typical of a large urban area, exaggerates the need for efficient travel, as it is increasingly difficult to live and work within short distances.   

The use of demand management tools has become more frequent in transport planning with this development towards more sustainable cities. Whereas investing in new capacity was previously the main response to increased demand for travel, there is a much broader range of policies in use today. One of these demand management tools is congestion charging. Singapore was first to implement congestion charging and during the last decade it was followed by London and Stockholm, with increasing support from the citizens as a consequence. Many other cities have performed feasibility studies for introduction of congestion charging. 

The development of transport models for prediction of demand management tools, such as congestion charging, has however not been able to keep up with this change in kind of policy. Transport models that were developed for prediction and evaluation of infrastructure investments, such as new motorways, are often used to forecast effects of policies aimed at managing demand, which too often results in poor prediction.

This thesis focuses on the needs for modelling of congestion charging. The state-of-practice models used before implementation in Singapore, London and Stockholm are reviewed, as well as more advanced dynamic models developed for prediction of congestion charging and other demand management tools. A number of gaps in the modelling of congestion charging are described and a new model called SILVESTER is developed, which closes some of these gaps. In particular, SILVESTER involves dynamic mesoscopic modelling of traffic flows, flexible departure times and users with heterogeneous preferences.

The thesis describes the implementation of SILVESTER and considers and compares different methods of demand aggregation in order to reduce run-time of the large-scale dynamic model (Paper I). It also describes how preferred departure times of road users can be determined in calibration such that consistency exists between the departure time choice model and dynamic traffic flows which are input to assignment (Paper II). The unique implementation of congestion charging in Stockholm gives the possibility to validate SILVESTER on real-world measurement of reductions in traffic flow and behavioural adjustments to the charges (Paper III). SILVESTER is then used to analyse several modified versions of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme and to compare welfare and equity effects of the different schemes. It is shown that the welfare of the current scheme could be improved if charges were allowed to differ by location and driving direction (Paper IV). It is shown that the benefits of congestion charges calculated using SILVESTER are greater than the benefits calculated with a static model. Finally, the reasons for the greater benefits are investigated (Paper V).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. x, 59 p.
Series
Trita-TEC-PHD, ISSN 1653-4468 ; 11:003
Keyword
Transport Modelling, Congestion Charging, Departure Time Choice, Dynamic Traffic Simulation, Welfare Effects, Equity
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-43732 (URN)978-91-85539-79-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-09, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20111019Available from: 2011-10-19 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2012-06-12Bibliographically approved

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Börjesson, MariaKristoffersson, Ida

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