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A Low-Power and Flexible Energy Detection IR-UWB Receiver for RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
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2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, Vol. 58, no 7, 1470-1482 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an energy detection Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) receiver for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) applications. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) consisting of a 3-5 GHz analog front-end, a timing circuit and a high speed baseband controller is implemented in a 90 nm standard CMOS technology. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is employed as a reconfigurable back-end, enabling adaptive baseband algorithms and ranging estimations. The proposed architecture is featured by high flexibility that adopts a wide range of pulse rate (512 kHz-33 MHz), processing gain (0-18 dB), correlation schemes, synchronization algorithms, and modulation schemes (PPM/OOK). The receiver prototype was fabricated and measured. The power consumption of the ASIC is 16.3 mW at 1 V power supply, which promises a minimal energy consumption of 0.5 nJ/bit. The whole link is evaluated together with a UWB RFID tag. Bit error rate (BER) measurement displays a sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s with 10(-3) BER achieved by the proposed receiver, corresponding to an operation distance over 10 meters under the FCC regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE , 2011. Vol. 58, no 7, 1470-1482 p.
Keyword [en]
Energy detection, Internet-of-Things, low power receiver, sensitivity, ultra-wideband (UWB)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-45298DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2011.2142930ISI: 000295587100003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79959795819OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-45298DiVA: diva2:452168
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20111028

Available from: 2011-10-28 Created: 2011-10-28 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Impulse Radio UWB for the Internet-of-Things: A Study on UHF/UWB Hybrid Solution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impulse Radio UWB for the Internet-of-Things: A Study on UHF/UWB Hybrid Solution
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation investigates Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT). In particular, an ultra-high frequency (UHF) wireless-powered UWB radio (UHF/UWB hybrid) with asymmetric links is explored from system architecture to circuit implementation.

Context-aware, location-aware, and energy-aware computing for the IoT demands future micro-devices (e.g., RFID tags) with capabilities of sensing, processing, communication, and positioning, which can be integrated into everyday objects including paper documents, as well as food and pharmaceutical packages. To this end, reliable-operating and maintenance-free wireless networks with low-power and low-cost radio transceivers are essential. In this context, state-of-the-art passive RFID technologies provide limited data rate and positioning accuracy, whereas active radios suffer from high complexity and power-hungry transceivers. Impulse Radio UWB (IR-UWB) exhibits significant advantages that are expected to overcome these limitations. Wideband signals offer robust communications and high-precision positioning; duty-cycled operations allow link scalability; and baseband-like architecture facilitates extremely simple and low-power transmitters. However, the implementation of the IR-UWB receiver is still power-hungry and complex, and thus is unacceptable for self-powered or passive tags.

To cope with μW level power budget in wireless-powered systems, this dissertation proposes an UHF/UWB hybrid radio architecture with asymmetric links. It combines the passive UHF RFID and the IR-UWB transmitter. In the downlink (reader-tag), the tag is powered and controlled by UHF signals as conventional passive UHF tags, whereas it uses an IR-UWB transmitter to send data for a short time at a high rate in the uplink (tag-reader). Such an innovative architecture takes advantage of UWB transmissions, while the tag avoids the complex UWB receiver by shifting the burden to the reader. A wireless-powered tag providing -18.5 dBm sensitivity UHF downlink and 10 Mb/s UWB uplink is implemented in 180 nm CMOS. At the reader side, a non-coherent energy detection IR-UWB receiver is designed to pair the tag. The receiver is featured by high energy-efficiency and flexibility that supports multi-mode operations. A novel synchronization scheme based on the energy offset is suggested. It allows fast synchronization between the reader and tags, without increasing the hardware complexity. Time-of-Arrival (TOA) estimation schemes are analyzed and developed for the reader, which enables tag localization. The receiver prototype is fabricated in 90 nm CMOS with 16.3 mW power consumption and -79 dBm sensitivity at 10 Mb/s data rate. The system concept is verified by the link measurement between the tag and the reader. Compared with current passive UHF RFID systems, the UHF/UWB hybrid solution provides an order of magnitude improvement in terms of the data rate and positioning accuracy brought by the IR-UWB uplink.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. xx, 94 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 11:15
Keyword
Ultra-Wideband, impulse radio, IR-UWB, RFID, asymmetric links, UHF/UWB hybrid, wireless sensing, energy detection, low power, radio receiver, positioning, Internet-of-Things
National Category
Computer Systems Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-59107 (URN)978-91-7501-206-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-08, Sal/Hall D, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120110Available from: 2012-01-10 Created: 2012-01-10 Last updated: 2012-01-11Bibliographically approved
2. Sub-Nyquist Sampling Impulse Radio UWB Receivers for the Internet-of-Things
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sub-Nyquist Sampling Impulse Radio UWB Receivers for the Internet-of-Things
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the era of Internet-of-Things, the demand for short range wireless links featured by low-power and low-cost, robust communication and high-precision positioning is growing rapidly. Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) technology characterized by the transmission of sub-nanosecond pulses spanning up to several GHz band with extremely low power spectral density emerges as a promising candidate. Nevertheless, several challenges must be confronted in order to take the full advantage of IR-UWB technology. The most significant one lies in the reception of UWB signals. Traditional receiver requires Nyquist rate ADC which is overwhelmingly complex and power hungry. This dissertation proposes and investigates possible sub-Nyquist sampling techniques for IR-UWB receiver design.

In the first part of this dissertation, the IR-UWB receiver based on energy detection (ED) principle is explored. A low-power ED receiver featured by flexibility and multi-mode operation is proposed. The receiver prototype for 3-5 GHz band is implemented in 90 nm CMOS. Measurement results demonstrate that 16.3 mW power consumption and -79 dBm sensitivity at 10 Mb/s data rate can be achieved. To further optimize the receiver performance, threshold optimization is suggested for the on-off-keying modulated signal, and adaptive synchronization and integration region optimization is proposed. Finally, a low complexity burst packet detection scheme is proposed, which is adaptive to the variations of noise background and link distance.

In the second part of this dissertation, the IR-UWB receiver based on compressed sensing (CS) theory is investigated. Firstly, appropriate sparse basis, sensing matrix and reconstruction algorithms are suggested for the CS based IR-UWB receiver. And then, the architectural analysis of the CS receiver with focuses on the random noise processes in the CS measurement procedure is presented. At last, a novel two-path noise-reducing architecture for the CS receiver is proposed. Besides the improvement on the receiver performance, the proposed architecture also relaxes the hardware implementation of the CS random projection as well as the back-end signal reconstruction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 79 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2016:23
Keyword
Ultra-Wideband, impulse radio, receiver, energy detection, compressed sensing, sub-Nyquist sampling, Internet-of-Things
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195816 (URN)978-91-7729-174-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-12, Sal 205, Electrum, Kista, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161110

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2016-11-10Bibliographically approved

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