Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Alloying effects on the elastic parameters of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic Fe from first-principles theory
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2832-3293
2011 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 110, no 7, 073707- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The elastic properties of paramagnetic face-centered-cubic (fcc) Fe(1-x)M(x) (M = Al, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Rh; 0 <= x <= 0.1) random alloys are investigated using the exact muffin-tin orbitals density functional method in combination with the coherent-potential approximation. We find that the theoretical lattice parameter of fcc Fe is strongly enlarged by Al, V, and Rh and slightly reduced by Si, Cr, and Co, while it remains nearly constant with Mn and Ni. Both positive and negative alloying effects appear for the elastic constants C(ij)(x) of fcc Fe. These findings are in contrast to those obtained for ferromagnetic body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe alloys, where all alloying elements considered here are predicted to enlarge the lattice parameter and decrease the C(11)(x) and C(12)(x) elastic constants of bcc Fe. With some exceptions, alloying has much larger effects on ferromagnetic bcc alloys than on paramagnetic fcc ones. Based on the theoretical elastic parameters of the paramagnetic fcc and ferromagnetic bcc phases, simple parameterizations in terms of chemical composition of the equilibrium lattice constants, single-crystal elastic constants, and polycrystalline elastic moduli of Fe-based alloys are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 110, no 7, 073707- p.
Keyword [en]
coherent-potential approximation, initio molecular-dynamics, total-energy calculations, wave basis-set, lattice-dynamics, single-crystals, iron, constants, metals, model
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-46855DOI: 10.1063/1.3644907ISI: 000295883000055Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-80054969961OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-46855DiVA: diva2:454356
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note
QC 20111107Available from: 2011-11-07 Created: 2011-11-07 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Describing Interstitials in Close-packed Lattices: First-principles Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Describing Interstitials in Close-packed Lattices: First-principles Study
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Describing interstitial atoms in intermetallics or simple mono-atomic close-packed metals is a straightforward procedure in common full-potential calculations. One establishes a sufficiently large supercell, introduces the interstitial impurity and performs the electronic structure and total energy calculation. Real systems, however, are rarely mono-atomic or ordered metals. In most of the cases, the matrix is a random or quasirandom mixture of several chemically and/or magnetically distinct components. Because of that a proper computational tool should incorporate advanced alloy theory and at the same time have sufficiently high accuracy to describe interstitial positions in close-packed solids. The purpose of the present thesis is to make a step towards solving this fundamental problem in computational materials science. To this end, in the first part of the thesis a prestudy on some selected metals and compounds was presented, and in the second part tools were applied to investigate the effect of interstitial carbon on the structural properties of steels.

For the prestudy, the equation of state for the selected Al, Cu and Rh was investigated in two equivalent phases: in conventional face-centered-cubic lattice (fcc, str-I) and in a face-centered-cubic lattice with one atomic and three interstitial empty potentialwells per primitive cell (str-II). A proper basis set of the exact muffin-tin orbitals as well as a proper potential sphere radius were established by calculating the equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius and bulk modulus of the above elements in str-I and str-II using the exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) first-principle density functional method. It was found that for Al spd orbitals are sufficient to describe the equilibrium bulk properties in both structures, while for str-II Rh and Cu at least five orbitals (spdfg) are needed to get accurate equilibrium volume and bulk modulus. Furthermore, it was shown that in general, for the str-II type of structure (close-packed structure with interstitials) the optimized overlapping muffin-tin potential in combination with spdfg orbitals ensures well converged bulk properties.

As an application of the above work in alloys, (i) the chemical reaction between hydrogen H2 molecule and ScAl1−xMgx (0≤x≤0.3) random alloys, (ii) the phase stability of the hydrogenated alloys in different structures and (iii) the hydrogen absorption/desorption temperatures were studied by calculating the Gibbs energy for the components of the reaction. Experimental and theoretical studies by Sahlberg et al . showed that the ScAl0.8Mg0.2 compound with CsCl structure absorbs hydrogen by decomposing into ScH2 with CaF2 structure and fcc Al0.8Mg0.2. This reaction was found to be very fast, even without adding catalyst, and fully reversible. The theoretical hydrogen absorption/desorption temperatures agree well with the experimental values. On the other hand, the stability field of the hydrogenated alloys was found to be strongly depends on Mg content and on the microstructure of the hydrogenated alloys. For a given microstructure, the critical temperature for hydrogen absorption/desorption increases with the Mg concentration.

The second part of the thesis focused on steel materials with special emphases on the effect of interstitial carbon. Steels are considered to be one of the most important engineering materials. They are mainly composed of iron and carbon. Other alloying elements in steel are introduced to get specific properties like microstructure, corrosion resistance, hardness, brittleness, etc. In order to describe the effect of carbon interstitial in iron alloys, it is important to know how the substitutional alloying elements affect the softness and some other properties of iron alloys. For that reason, the alloying effects on the energetic and magnetic structure of paramagnetic Fe0.85Cr0.1M0.05 (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) alloys along the tetragonal distortion path connecting the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) phases were investigated. It was shown that Cr stabilizes bcc phase and increases the energy barrier (relative to bcc phase) between fcc and bcc phases. Cobalt and Ni stabilize fcc structure. Cobalt increases whereas Ni slightly decreases the energy barrier relative to fcc structure. Manganese and iron have negligible effect on the structural energy difference as well as on the energy barrier along the Bain path. The local magnetic moments on Fe atoms have maximum values at bcc phase and minimum values at fcc phase. Cobalt atoms possess local magnetic moments only for tetragonal lattices with c/a < 1.30, and the Mn magnetic moments have almost constant value along the Bain path.

The tetragonality of Fe-C martensite was discovered in 1928. Early experimental works showed that the tetragonality of Fe-C is linearly depends on C content. However, Later many observations indicated that the tetragonality of martensite is influenced also by alloying and interstitial carbon distributions. Very few ab initio studies focus on investigating the tetragonality of Fe-C based alloys. In this thesis the interstitial carbon in ferromagnetic Fe-based alloys and it is impact on the tetragonal lattice ratio of Fe matrix as well as the alloying effect on the tetragonality of Fe-C system were investigated. It was found that the ferromagnetic Fe-C system with C content ∼ 1.3 wt. % has a body-centered tetragonal (bct) structure with c/a ∼ 1.07. Alloying has an impact on the tetragonality; adding 5% Al, Co or Ni enhances while 5% Cr addition decreases the tetragonal lattice ratio.

The electronic structure and total energy calculations from this thesis are based on firstprinciples exact muffin-tin orbitals method. The chemical and magnetic disorder was treated using coherent-potential approximation and the paramagnetic phase was modeled by the disordered local magnetic moments approach. Some test calculations involved also full-potential tools as implemented in Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. viii, 46 p.
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47733 (URN)978-91-7501-124-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-09, Sal K2, Teknikringen 28, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111118Available from: 2011-11-18 Created: 2011-11-11 Last updated: 2011-11-18Bibliographically approved
2. Elastic Properties of Iron Alloys from First-Principles Theory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elastic Properties of Iron Alloys from First-Principles Theory
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Accurate description of materials requires the most advanced atomic-scale techniques from both experimental and theoretical areas. In spite of numerous available techniques, however, the experimental study of the atomic-scale properties and phenomena even in simple solids is rather difficult. Iron and its alloys (including steels) are among the most important engineering materials due to their excellent mechanical properties. In these systems, the above challenges become more complex due to the interplay between the structural, chemical, andmagnetic effects. On the other hand, advanced computational methods based on density functional theory (DFT) ensure a proper platform for studying the fundamental properties of materials from first-principles theory. The present thesis belongs to the latter category. We use advanced theoretical tools to give a systematic description of Fe and a series of Fe-rich alloys in the ferromagnetic (FM) body-centered-cubic (bcc), paramagnetic (PM) bcc, and PM face-centered-cubic (fcc) structures. For solving the basic DFT equations for steel alloys, we adopt the all-electron exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) method in combination with the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) and the disordered local magnetic moment (DLM) model.

We start by assessing our theoretical tools in the case of Fe. For the FM state, we find that there is a magnetic transition close to the ground state volume of bcc Fe, which is explained by the peculiarmagnetic band structure. We conclude that the common equation of state functions can not capture the physics of this magnetic transition, leading to serious underestimation of theoretical bulk modulus of Fe. When the above effect is properly taken into account, theory is shown to reproduce the low-temperature experimental bulk properties (equation of state and elastic parameters) of FM bcc Fe within ∼ 1% for the volume and ∼7% for the elastic constants.

Using the EMTO-CPA-DLM picture, in contrast to previous theoretical predictions, we demonstrate that the competing high-temperature cubic phases of PM Fe correspond to two distinct total energy minima in the tetragonal (Bain) configurational space. Both fcc and bcc lattices are dynamically stable, and at static conditions the fcc structure is found to be the thermodynamically stable phase. When the thermal expansion is taken into account, our theoretical bulk properties calculated for PM Fe agree well with the available experimental data. Increasing temperature is predicted to stabilize the bcc (δ) phase against the fcc (γ) one because of the shallow energy minimum around the bcc structure.

The calculated composition-dependent equilibriumlattice constants, single-crystal elastic constants Cij(c) (here c stands for the amount of alloying additions), and polycrystalline elastic parameters of FM bcc Fe show good agreement with former theoretical and available experimental data, implying that the employed theoretical approach is suitable to calculate the elastic properties of FM Fe alloys. For FM bcc Fe alloys, all impurities considered in this thesis (Al, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Rh) enlarge the equilibrium lattice parameter and accordingly decrease the C11(c), C12(c), and C′(c) elastic constants. However, a peculiar phenomenon appears for C44(c). Namely, in spite of increasing volume, Al, Si, V, Cr, and Mn are found to increase C44(c), whereas the alloying effects of Co, Ni, and Rh are small. The anomalous alloying effect in C44(c) isshown to originate from the particular electronic structure of FM bcc Fe. The complex composition dependence of C44(c) is reflected in the polycrystalline properties of FM Fe as well.

Unlike for FM bcc Fe, both positive and negative alloying effects appear for the theoretical equilibrium lattice parameters, single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic properties of PM bcc and fcc Fe. For many elastic parameters and binary systems considered in this thesis, alloying element induces opposite effects in fcc and bcc phases. In other words, the alloying effects on the elastic properties of PM Fe-based alloys show strong structure dependence. While neither the volume nor the electronic effect can explain the calculated trends of C′(c), we find that there is a general correlation between alloying effects on the lattice stability and C′(c). With a few exceptions, alloying elements have much larger effects on FM bcc Fe than on PM fcc Fe. A slightly larger alloying effect appears on PM fcc Fe compared to PM bcc Fe.

According to the calculated fundamental properties, we also estimate the relative hardness of Fe alloys via two phenomenological solid-solution strengthening mechanisms. In those caseswhere experimental data are available, the predicted solid-solution strengthening effects are in line with the observations. The metastable Mg-doped Fe alloys surpass all rival binaries in density and solid-solution strengthening effects. The Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Ni alloys containing a few percent of Mg are also predicted to possess unusually high solid-solution hardening and low density compared to the host alloys. These attributes make theMg-bearing stainless steels very promising candidates for many applications, such as the high-strength and light-weight designs desired by for example the automotive industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 74 p.
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48182 (URN)978-91-7501-116-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-02, Sal B2, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111123Available from: 2011-11-23 Created: 2011-11-16 Last updated: 2012-03-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Vitos, Levente

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Zhang, HualeiAl-Zoubi, NouraJohansson, BörjeVitos, Levente
By organisation
Applied Material Physics
In the same journal
Journal of Applied Physics
Physical Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 112 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf