Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Platinum zone plates for hard X-ray applications
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
Show others and affiliations
2011 (English)In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 88, no 10, 3123-3126 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe the fabrication and evaluation of platinum zone plates for 5–12 kV X-ray imaging and focusing. These nano-scale circular periodic structures are fabricated by filling an e-beam generated mold with Pt in an electroplating process. The plating recipe is described. The resulting zone plates, having outer zone widths of 100 and 50 nm, show good uniformity and high aspect ratio. Their diffraction efficiencies are 50–70% of the theoretical, as measured at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Platinum shows promise to become an attractive alternative to present hard X-ray zone plate materials due to its nano-structuring properties and the potential for zone-plate operation at higher temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 88, no 10, 3123-3126 p.
Keyword [en]
zone plate, x-ray optics, electroplating, electron beam lithography, platinum, hard x-rays
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47405DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2011.06.011ISI: 000297400900014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-80052786408OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-47405DiVA: diva2:454962
Funder
EU, European Research Council, FP7/2007-2013 226716
Note
QC 20111109Available from: 2011-11-08 Created: 2011-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. High-Resolution Nanostructuring for Soft X-Ray Zone-Plate Optics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Resolution Nanostructuring for Soft X-Ray Zone-Plate Optics
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Diffractive zone-plate lenses are widely used as optics in high-resolution x-ray microscopes. The achievable resolution in such microscopes is presently not limited by the x-ray wavelength but by limitations in zone-plate nanofabrication. Thus, for the advance of high-resolution x-ray microscopy, progress in zone-plate nanofabrication methods are needed.

 

This Thesis describes the development of new nanofabrication processes for improved x-ray zone-plate optics. Cold development of the electron-beam resist ZEP7000 is applied to improve the resolution of soft x-ray Ni zone plates. The influence of developer temperature on resist contrast, resolution, and pattern quality is investigated. With an optimized process, Ni zone plates with outermost zone widths down to 13 nm are demonstrated. To enhance the diffraction efficiency of Ni zone plates, the concept of Ni-Ge zone plates is introduced. The applicability of Ni-Ge zone plates is first demonstrated in a proof-of-principle experiment, and then extended to cold-developed Ni zone plates with outermost zone widths down to 13 nm. For 15-nm Ni-Ge zone plates a diffraction efficiency of 4.3% at a wavelength of 2.88 nm is achieved, which is about twice the efficiency of state-of-the-art 15-nm Ni zone plates. To further increase both resolution and diffraction efficiency of soft x-ray zone plates, a novel fabrication process for W zone plates is developed. High resolution is provided by salty development of the inorganic electron-beam resist HSQ, and cryogenic RIE in a SF6 plasma is investigated for high-aspect-ratio W structuring. We demonstrate W zone plates with 12-nm outermost zone width and a W height of 90 nm, resulting in a 30% increase in theoretical diffraction efficiency compared to 13-nm efficiency-enhanced Ni-Ge zone plates. In addition to soft x-ray zone plates, some lenses for hard x-ray free-electron-laser applications were also fabricated during this Thesis work. Fabrication processes for the materials W, diamond, and Pt were developed. We demonstrate Pt and W-diamond zone plates with 100-nm outermost zone width and respective diffraction efficiencies of 8.2% and 14.5% at a photon energy of 8 keV.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. xii, 70 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2011:55
Keyword
zone plates; x-ray optics; x-ray microscopy; high resolution; nanofabrication; electron beam lithography; reactive ion etching; tungsten; nickel; germanium
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47409 (URN)978-91-7501-175-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-02, FA31, Roslagstullsbacken 21, KTH/Albanova, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111114Available from: 2011-11-14 Created: 2011-11-08 Last updated: 2011-11-14Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Vogt, UlrichHertz, Hans M.Holmberg, Anders

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Chubarova, ElenaNilsson, DanielLindblom, MagnusReinspach, JuliaVogt, UlrichHertz, Hans M.Holmberg, Anders
By organisation
Biomedical and X-ray Physics
In the same journal
Microelectronic Engineering
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 95 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf