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Energy Analysis of the Closed Greenhouse Concept: Towards a Sustainable Energy Pathway
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. (Thermal Energy Storage group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9426-4792
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The closed greenhouse is an innovative concept in sustainable energy management. The closed greenhouse can be considered as a large commercial solar building. In principle, it is designed to maximize the utilization of solar energy through seasonal storage. In a fully closed greenhouse, there are not any ventilation windows. Therefore, the excess sensible and latent heat must be removed, and can be stored using seasonal and/or daily thermal storage technology. The available stored excess heat can be utilized later in order to satisfy the heating demand in the greenhouse, and also in neighbouring buildings.

A model for energy analysis of a greenhouse has been developed using the commercial software TRNSYS. With this model, the performance of various design scenarios has been examined. The closed greenhouse is compared with a conventional greenhouse using a case study to guide the energy analysis. In the semi-closed greenhouse, a large part of the available excess heat will be stored through thermal energy storage system (TES). However, a ventilation system can still be integrated in order to use fresh air as a rapid response indoor climate control system. The partly closed greenhouse consists of a fully closed section and a conventional section. The fully closed section will supply the heating and cooling demand of the conventional section as well as its own demand. The results show that there is a large difference in heating demand between the ideal closed and conventional greenhouse configurations. Also, it can be concluded that the greenhouse glazing type (single or double glass) and, in the case of the semi-closed and partly closed greenhouse, the controlled ventilation ratio are important for the thermal energy performance of the system. 

A thermo-economic analysis has been done in order to investigate the cost feasibility of various closed greenhouse configurations. From this analysis, it was found that the load chosen for the design of the seasonal storage has the main impact on the payback period. In the case of the base load being chosen as the design load, the payback period for the ideal closed greenhouse might be reduced by 50% as compared to using peak load. Thus, future studies should explore innovative combinations of short term and seasonal storage.

Finally, several energy management scenarios have been discussed in order to find alternatives for improving the energy performance of the closed greenhouses. However, no specific optimal solution has so far been defined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xviii, 89 p.
Series
TRITA-KRV, ISSN 1100-7990 ; 2011:10
Keyword [en]
thermal energy storage, closed greenhouse, energy analysis, energy management
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47505ISBN: 978-91-7501-146-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-47505DiVA: diva2:455601
Presentation
2011-11-28, M2, Brinellvägen 64, Stockholm, 10:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20111115

Available from: 2011-11-15 Created: 2011-11-10 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Energy analysis and thermoeconomic assessment of the closed greenhouse: The largest commercial solar building
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy analysis and thermoeconomic assessment of the closed greenhouse: The largest commercial solar building
2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 102, 1256-1266 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The closed greenhouse concept has been studied in this paper. The closed greenhouse can be considered as the largest commercial solar building. In principle, it is designed to maximize the utilization of solar energy by use of seasonal storage. In an ideal fully closed greenhouse, there is no ventilation window. Therefore, the excess heat must be removed by other means. In order to utilize the excess heat at a later time, long- and/or short-term thermal storage technology (TES) should be integrated. A theoretical model has been derived to evaluate the performance of various design scenarios. The closed greenhouse is compared with a conventional greenhouse using a case study to guide the energy analysis and verify the model. A new parameter has been defined in this paper in order to compare the performance of the closed greenhouse concept in different configurations - the Surplus Energy Ratio showing the available excess thermal energy that can be stored in the TES system and the annual heating demand of the greenhouse. From the energy analysis it can be concluded that SER is about three in the ideal fully closed greenhouse. Also, there is a large difference in heating demand between the ideal closed and conventional greenhouse configurations Finally, a preliminary thermo-economic study has been assessed in order to investigate the cost feasibility of various closed greenhouse configurations, like ideal closed; semi closed and partly closed conditions. Here, it was found that the design load has the main impact on the payback period. In the case of the base load being chosen as the design load, the payback period for the ideal closed greenhouse might be reduced by 50%. On the other hand, glazing type, ventilation ratio, and the closed area portion have a minor impact on the payback period.

Keyword
Closed greenhouse, Energy conservation, Heat transfer, Solar commercial building, Sustainable energy management system, Thermal energy storage system
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48033 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.06.051 (DOI)000314190800130 ()2-s2.0-84870728102 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120328. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2011-11-15 Created: 2011-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Energy management in horticultural applications through the closed greenhouse concept, state of the art
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy management in horticultural applications through the closed greenhouse concept, state of the art
2012 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 16, no 7, 5087-5100 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The commercial greenhouse has the highest demand for energy as compared to all other agricultural industry sectors. Here, energy management is important from a broad sustainability perspective. This paper presents the state-of-the-art regarding one energy management concept; the closed greenhouse integrated with thermal energy storage (TES) technology. This concept is an innovation for sustainable energy management since it is designed to maximize the utilization of solar energy through seasonal storage. In a fully closed greenhouse, there is no ventilation which means that excess sensible and latent heat must be removed. Then, this heat can be stored using seasonal and/or daily TES technology, and used later in order to satisfy the heating demand of the greenhouse. This assessment shows that closed greenhouse can, in addition to satisfying its own heating demand, also supply the demand for neighboring buildings. Several energy potential studies show that summer excess heat of almost three times the annual heating demand of the greenhouse. However, many studies propose the use of some auxiliary system for peak load. Also, the assessment clearly point out that a combination of seasonal and short-term TES must be further explored to make use of the full potential. Although higher amount of solar energy can be harvested in a fully closed greenhouse, in reality a semi-closed greenhouse concept may be more applicable. There, a large part of the available excess heat will be stored, but the benefits of an integrated forced-ventilation system are introduced in order to use fresh air as a rapid response for primarily humidity control. The main conclusion from this review is that aspects like energy efficiency, environmental benefits and economics must be further examined since this is seldom presented in the literature. Also, a variety of energy management scenarios may be employed depending on the most prioritized aspect.

Keyword
sustainable energy management, closed greenhouse, thermal energy storage, system modelling, energy analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48036 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2012.04.022 (DOI)000307909800065 ()2-s2.0-84862740275 (Scopus ID)
Note

QS 20120328. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2011-11-15 Created: 2011-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Solar energy utilization in closed greehouse environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar energy utilization in closed greehouse environment
2010 (English)In: EUROSUN 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48030 (URN)
Conference
EUROSUN 2010
Note

QC 20111115

Available from: 2011-11-15 Created: 2011-11-15 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved

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