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Fuel options for the transport sector in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
2008 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Given the present adverse situation of energy security, flow of hard cash in importingscarce fossil fuels and deteriorating air quality of congested urban cities of developingcountries, it is important to evaluate available renewable energy options for the transport sector. This thesis examines and reviews the appropriateness of available fuel options- ethanol blendedgasoline and electricity- in the transport sector of the capital city of Nepal, Kathmandu Valley.First, the study estimates the net energy value (NEV) and energy yield ratio of molasses basedethanol from cradle to grave approach. Second, performance of ethanol blended gasoline vehicle isreviewed. Potential of ethanol production and subsequent gasoline savings are scrutinized. Third,energy efficiency of battery operated three-wheeler electric vehicle (EV) is examined and comparedwith conventional fossil fuel powered three-wheelers.

Preliminary finding shows that fossil fuel consumption to produce one litre of anhydrous ethanol (EtOH) is 2.799 MJ, which gives the energy yield ratio of 7.573 at present conditions. This ratiobecomes lower when the use of fertilizers/chemicals and rate of irrigation are increased. Price ofmolasses contributes a big role since economic allocation is used to partition the energy valuesassociated with sugar and molasses. The study also depicts that total energy inputs (fossil plusrenewable) are higher that the net energy content of EtOH. At present, E10 (blend of 10% EtOH and90% gasoline in volume by volume) can substitute 5,485 m3 of the imported gasoline annually.Besides, local air pollutants like CO, HC are greatly reduced. Three-wheeler battery operatedelectric vehicle (EV) has lower well to wheel (WtW) and tank to wheel (TtW) efficiency than theirLPG, gasoline and diesel operated counterparts in terms of fuel consumption per kilometre. WtW efficiency of the EV is 1.789 MJ/km while diesel and gasoline three wheelers have 3.587 MJ/km and 3.712 MJ/km respectively, considering 99% of electricity in the grid issupplied by hydropower and the rest 1% by diesel power plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Keyword [en]
Net Energy Value, Energy Yield Ratio, E10, Electric Vehicle, Energy Efficiency
National Category
Energy Systems
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48063OAI: diva2:456757
Subject / course
Energy and Climate Studies
Available from: 2011-11-16 Created: 2011-11-15 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved

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