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Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. (Wireless)
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. (Wireless)
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. (Communication Systems)
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. (Wireless)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4986-6123
2010 (English)In: 2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent work has demonstrated that the underutilized spectrum in the Digital Television Bands, commonly referred to as TV White Space (TVWS), is a prime candidate for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA). However, a systematic assessment of the availability of this spectrum for secondary transmission was, until very recently, lacking. In a TVWS opportunity prediction model to estimate indoor secondary usage probability was proposed. In this paper we aim at verifying this model by means of measurement campaigns in both laboratory and real indoor environments. The match between the predictions from the simulation models in and measurement results suggest that the model provides a realistic evaluation of the opportunities in TVWS for low power indoor secondary usage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010.
Keyword [en]
white space, digital television broadcasting, opportunistic spectrum access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48305DOI: 10.4108/ICST.CROWNCOM2010.9286Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77958168179ISBN: 978-1-4244-5885-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-48305DiVA: diva2:457268
Conference
2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010. Cannes, France 9 June 2010 - 11 June 2010
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20150710

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. RF Channel Characterization in Industrial, Hospital and Home Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RF Channel Characterization in Industrial, Hospital and Home Environments
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid development of electronic components has resulted in the emergence of newmobile applications targeted at industry and hospital sectors. Moreover, a lack of availablewireless frequencies as result of the growth of wireless systems is becoming a problem.In this thesis we characterize industrial and hospital environments in order to provide theknowledge necessary to asses present and future development of critical wireless applications.Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of using TV white space by analysingthe interference from secondary to primary user in home environments.

Some of the wireless solutions used in industries and hospitals come directly fromsystems designed for home or office, such asWLAN and Bluetooth. These systems are notprepared to handle problems associated with interference of impulsive character found inindustrial processes and electrical systems.

Typically, industrial environments have been classified as reflective environments dueto the metallic structure present in the buildings. In this thesis, we demonstrate that althoughthis may be generally true, some locations in the industry may have special propertieswith wave propagation characteristics in the opposite direction. Stored materials canabsorb wireless signals, resulting in a coverage problem. From the measurement campaignwe are able to distinguish three main classes of indoor environments (highly reflective,medium reflective and low reflective) with different propagation characteristics.

Improving spectrum efficiency can be a solution to the growing demand for wirelessservices and can increase a system’s robustness against interference, particularly in criticalapplications in industrial and hospital environments. One improvement in spectrum efficiencycan be for secondary consumers to reuse unassigned portions of the TV spectrum ata specific time and geographical location. This thesis studies the effect of inserting whitespace devices in the TV broadcast spectrum. Note that any new model must state the maximumpower allocated to secondary users to avoid harmful interference with the primarysignal.

The content of this thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is the most comprehensiveand addresses electromagnetic interference and multipath characterization ofindustrial environments. In this part, we have developed a method for channel characterizationfor complex electromagnetic environments and have produced results from differentindustrial environments. The second part presents a preliminary study that characterizesthe electromagnetic interference in a hospital environment. The third part is a study ofsecondary users reusing the TV white spaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xiii, 65 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 1203
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-61343 (URN)
Presentation
2012-02-14, 99131, Kungsbäckvägen 47, Gävle, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120119Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2012-01-20Bibliographically approved
2. Low-Power Secondary Access to the TV and Aeronautical Bands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Power Secondary Access to the TV and Aeronautical Bands
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The avalanche in mobile data consumption represents a big challenge for mobile operators. The efficient use of radio resources, e.g. technology, infrastructure and spectrum, is needed to meet the new capacity requirement in the mobile networks. This thesis aims at quantifying the real-life spectrum opportunities for deploying a massive low-power indoor secondary system. Our studies have mainly focused in two frequency bands: the digital TV and the aeronautical band. Indoor secondary access to these bands presents different technical challenges: Limited adjacent channel rejection capabilities and no information about the location of the primary receivers are key challenges in the digital TV band. Instead for the aeronautical band, the control of the aggregate interference over a large area due to the high sensitivity levels and the extremely low permissible outage probability at the primary system are the key issues for secondary access.

We have proposed a research methodology for determining the availability of spectrum opportunities in both frequency bands: digital TV and aeronautical band. Our methodology mainly emphasizes on establishing the realistic limits of tolerable interference at the primary, devising practical sharing schemes and determining the operational conditions and constraints for the secondary system. Based on our numerical results and measurement campaigns, we conclude that there is significant amount of spectrum opportunities for the deployment of massive low-power indoor secondary access in the digital TV and aeronautical band. The availability of spectrum opportunities highly depends on the sharing mechanisms, the primary protection criteria and the secondary system parameters. Future work should consider how the secondary users share the available spectrum in order to optimize the performance of secondary system in realistic scenarios. Another interesting investigation is the business viability assessment of secondary access in both frequency bands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. viii, 42 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 12:09
Keyword
Secondary Access, Interference Management, TV band, Aeronautical Band
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103045 (URN)
Presentation
2012-10-12, C2 - Electrum 1, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20121002

Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-01 Last updated: 2013-04-15Bibliographically approved
3. Availability Assessment for Secondary Access in TV White Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Availability Assessment for Secondary Access in TV White Space
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the rapid growth in wireless data traffic has posed not only unique opportunities but also great challenges for the wireless industry. In order to meet the growing demand without excessive cost or energy consumption, one feasible option for the operators is to acquire more spectrum for wireless communication. Unlike the lengthy allocation process for exclusive spectrum licenses, secondary spectrum access is deemed as a flexible alternative to obtain additional spectrum at low cost. In particular, the VHF/UHF TV band, so called ’TV White Space’, is considered as the most promising candidate for secondary access thanks to its well defined primary usage and favorable propagation characteristic for building penetration and wide area coverage.

Therefore, secondary access in the TV band has been extensively studied by both academic and industry. Most of the research have focused on the detection of ’spectrum holes’ with sensing technologies, while a few others have provided high level analysis of the potential of TV white space with simplistic secondary interference model for single secondary user. Only A limited number of studies have investigated aggregate interference from multiple secondary users, but even these studies have ignored the adjacent channel interference from secondary users close to the TV receivers.

Thus, in this thesis we first concentrate on examining the effect of harmful interference on TV reception from short range devices transmitting on adjacent channels, and model the accumulative effect of multi-channel interferences observed in the measurement. Then the basic methodology for evaluating the potential of TV white space is developed in the second part of the thesis, where we propose a new analytical approach for regulating the secondary transmit power that significantly outperforms the existing method in the regulatory framework. Finally, we combine the aggregate interference model and the basic regulation methodology to extend the analysis from single user to multiple user case, first with only users transmitting on different adjacent TV channels and later also including users transmitting on co-channels.

Our performance evaluation have shown that the effect of adjacent channel interference at close distance is far from negligible and the accumulative effect of multi-channel interferences has substantial impact on the scalability of a secondary system. In fact, the adjacent channel interference proves to be the primary limiting factor of the TV white space availability for low power short range systems. Nonetheless, because the proposed approach can adapt to varying environmental conditions and consequently utilize the spectrum reuse opportunity more efficiently than existing frameworks, we can still note considerable amount of TV white space available for short range secondary devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. vii, 37 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 1210
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104420 (URN)
Presentation
2012-11-09, Sal/Hall C2, Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
ICT - The Next GenerationEU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20121106

Available from: 2012-11-06 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2013-11-27Bibliographically approved
4. On the Deployment of Large-Scale High-Capacity Wireless Systems with Secondary Spectrum Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Deployment of Large-Scale High-Capacity Wireless Systems with Secondary Spectrum Access
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The avalanche in mobile data consumption represents a big challenge for mobile networks operators and national regulators. This thesis focuses on finding additional spectrum to meet this demand in a cost-efficient way by considering shared spectrum access. Our studies aim at identifying key factors in achieving large-scale business success,quantifying the spectrum availability and identifying suitable regulatory/sharing polices for large-scale secondary access in the aeronautical and radar bands. This thesis proposes a research methodology, that considers business, technical and regulatory aspects involved in assessing commercial viability of large-scale deployment of wireless networks, employing vertical spectrum sharing in the aeronautical and radar bands. We pinpoint the following criteria which are critical in ensuring business success:spectrum availability, radio technology availability, low-cost end-userdevices, system scalability and quality of service. Our investigation centers on the technical aspects of these criteria, and thus deals mainly with the assessment of spectrum availability. The availability of spectrum opportunities is found to be ample for adjacent channel usage despite the strict requirements of the radar receiver. However, it is alsovery location-dependent and mostly non-contiguous.Finally, with regard to the regulatory aspects, our results show thatapplying regulatory policies, especially to the deployment of secondary users, can boost availability in cities or urban areas where the capacity demand is high. In addition, Licensed Shared Access (LSA) is identified as a suitable regulatory framework to meet tough protection criteria ofthe radar receivers and to apply the selected regulatory policies to improve exploitation of sharing opportunities. Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that there is a significant amount of spectrum opportunities for large-scale secondary access in the aeronautical and radar bands from the technical point of view. However, the commercial viability of secondary spectrum access is still undetermined giventhe remaining uncertainties regarding its total cost and the exact time needed for relevant technology to become available. Moreover, thereis no single answer to the commercial viability since it will most likelydepend on the country or region in question, which affects the spectrum availability, which in turn is a key criterion for business success. Futurework should therefore strive to clarify these uncertainties and to identify new responsibilities for all the entities involved in the LSA framework. Moreover, a quantitative evaluation would be needed to obtain more explicit conclusions on the business viability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. viii, 58 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 14:04
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144861 (URN)
Public defence
2014-05-26, Sal D, Forum Building, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20140519

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
5. Efficient Spectrum Utilization of Uhf Broadcast Band
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Spectrum Utilization of Uhf Broadcast Band
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The UHF band between 470-790 MHz, currently occupied by digital ter- restrial TV (DTT) distribution in Europe, is widely regarded as a premium spectrum band for providing mobile coverage. With the exponential increase in wireless data traffic in recent years, there has been growing interests in gaining access to this spectrum band for wireless broadband services. The secondary access in TV White Space is considered as one cost-effective way to reuse the spectrum unoccupied by the primary DTT network. On the other hand, the declining influence of DTT and the converging trends of video con- sumption on TV and mobile platforms are new incentives for the regulator to reconsider the optimal utilization of the UHF broadcast band. The proposal to re-farm the UHF band for a converged content distribution network was born under theses circumstances.

This thesis intends to develop a methodology for evaluating the technical performance of these options for utilizing UHF broadcast band and quantify- ing their gains in terms of achievable extra capacity and spectrum savings. For the secondary access in TV white space, our study indicates a considerable po- tential for low power secondary, which is mostly limited by the adjacent chan- nel interference generated from the densely deployed secondary devices due to the cumulative effect of multichannel interference. On the other hand, this potential does not translate directly into capacity for a WiFi-like secondary system based on CSMA/CA protocol, as the network congestion and self- interference within the secondary system has a greater impact on the network throughput than the primary interference constraint.

Our study on the cellular content distribution network reveals more po- tential benefits for re-farming the UHF broadcast band and reallocating it for a converged platform. This platform is based on cellular infrastructure and can provide TV service with the same level of quality requirement as DTT by delivering the video content via either broadcast or unicast as the situa- tion dictates. We have developed a resource manage framework to minimize its spectrum requirement for providing TV service and identified a significant amount of spectrum that can be reused by the converged platform to provide extra mobile broadband capacity in urban and sparsely populated rural areas.

Overall, we have arrived at the conclusion that the concept of cellular con- tent distribution in a re-farmed UHF band shows a more promising prospect than the secondary access in TV white space in the long run. Nevertheless, low power secondary is still considered as a flexible and low-cost way to exploit the underutilized spectrum in the short term, despite its uncertainty in future availability. On the other hand, the re-farming of UHF broadcast band is a long and difficult regulation process with substantial opposition from the in- cumbent.The results from this study could serve as input for future regulatory decisions on the UHF band allocation and cost-benefit analysis for deploying new systems to access this spectrum band. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 157 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 1406
Keyword
TV White Space, CellTV, UHF Band, Spectrum
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-146078 (URN)
Public defence
2014-06-12, Sal E, Forum, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
EU FP7 QUASAREU FP7 METIS
Note

QC 20140609

Available from: 2014-06-09 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved

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