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Development of a Novel Method for Lithium-Ion Battery Testing on Heavy-Duty Vehicles
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. (Applied Electrochemistry)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9559-0004
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing demands for lower environmental impact from vehicles, including heavy-duty vehicles, have driven several vehicle manufacturers to consider adding hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV’s) to the product portfolio. Present research on batteries for HEV’s is mainly focused on lithium-ion battery chemistries, since lithium-ion batteries has the most promising technical potential compared to other types of batteries. However, the uncertainty regarding battery lifetime combined with a high battery cost can have a negative impact on large scale commercialisation of heavy-duty hybrid vehicles in the near future.

A large part of present lithium-ion battery research is focused on new materials, but there is also research focusing on ageing of already established lithium-ion battery chemistries. Cycle ageing of batteries often includes complete charging and discharging of batteries or the use of standardized test cycles. Battery cycling in real HEV applications is however quite different compared to this kind of laboratory testing, and real life testing on vehicles is a way of verifying the soundness of laboratory ageing.

The aim of this study was to develop a test method suitable for real life testing of lithium-ion batteries for heavy-duty HEV-usage, with the purpose of investigating the correlation of battery ageing and usage in real life applications. This concept study includes both cell level battery cycling and performance testing on board vehicles. The performance tests consist of discharge capacity measurements and hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests. The main feature of this test equipment is that it is designed to be used on conventional vehicles, emulating an HEV environment for the tested battery. The functionality of the equipment was verified on a heavy-duty HEV with satisfying results. Results from real life testing of 8 batteries using the developed test equipment on four conventional heavy-duty trucks shows that the concept of comparing battery ageing with battery usage has a most promising potential to be used as a tool when optimizing battery usage vs. lifetime. Initial results from this real life study shows significant differences in state of charge (SOC) and power distributions between cycled batteries, but so far only small differences in ageing. Lithium-ion batteries of the type lithium manganese spinel/lithium titanate (LMO/LTO) were used in this study.

Abstract [sv]

Ökande krav på minskad miljöpåverkan från fordon, inklusive tunga fordon, har drivit flera fordonstillverkare till att addera hybridiserade fordon till produktportföljen. Forskning på hybridfordonsbatterier är idag huvudsakligen inriktad på litiumjonbatterikemier, vilken har den mest lovande tekniska potentialen jämfört med andra typer av batterikemier. Det finns idag en risk att osäkerheten kring litiumjonbatteriers livslängd i kombination med en hög batterikostnad kan ha en negativ inverkan på en storskalig kommersialisering av tunga hybridfordon inom den närmsta framtiden.

En stor del av batteriforskningen är inriktad på nya material, men det finns även forskning som fokuserar på åldring av redan etablerade litiumjonbatterikemier. Vid åldringsprov används ofta standardiserade testcykler eller cykler där batterierna blir fullständigt laddade och urladdade. Cykling av batterier i verkliga förhållanden skiljer sig dock från den typen av laboratorietester och provning på fordon är därför ett sätt att kontrollera att laboratorieprovning ger relevanta resultat gällande åldring.

Syftet med denna studie var att utveckla en testmetodik lämplig för provning av litiumjonbatterier för tunga hybridfordon i verklig drift, med syfte att undersöka kopplingen mellan batteriers åldrande och hur det används. Detta koncept inkluderar battericykling på cellnivå och möjligheten att utföra batteriprestandatester på fordon, där prestandatesterna består av kapacitetsprov och pulsprov. Den viktigaste egenskapen hos den utvecklade testmetodiken är att provning sker på konventionella fordon genom att emulera en hybridmiljö för det testade batteriet. Funktionaliteten hos den utvecklade testutrustningen verifierades på en tung hybridlastbil med goda resultat. Resultaten från en fältstudie av 8 batterier på 4 lastbilar där den utvecklade testutrustningen användes påvisar att testmetodiken har en lovande potential att kunna användas som ett verktyg vid optimering av utnyttjandegrad och livslängd för HEV-batterier. De initiala resultaten från denna fältstudie påvisar skillnader i laddningsgradsfördelning och batterieffektfördelning mellan cyklade batterier, men ännu bara små skillnader i åldring. Litiumjonbatterier av typen litiummanganspinel/litiumtitanat (LMO/LTO) användes i denna studie.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , viii, 31 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:58
Keyword [en]
Lithium-ion battery, HEV, field testing, heavy-duty vehicles
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49114ISBN: 978-91-7501-192-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-49114DiVA: diva2:459287
Presentation
2011-12-15, K2, KTH, Teknikringen 28, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111205Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications
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2011 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 4, no 5, 741-757 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today's HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

Keyword
battery testing, hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV), lithium ion battery
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34677 (URN)10.3390/en4050741 (DOI)000291050600003 ()2-s2.0-79957673703 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20110613

Available from: 2011-06-13 Created: 2011-06-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. HEV lithium-ion battery testing and driving cycle analysis in a heavy-duty truck field study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HEV lithium-ion battery testing and driving cycle analysis in a heavy-duty truck field study
2012 (English)In: ECS Transactions: Volume 41, Issue 32, 2012, 2012, 12-26 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents early results from an ongoing field test of HEV batteries on heavy-duty trucks. The presented results focus on the parameters that can affect ageing, such as SOC and power. The goal with this study is to correlate battery ageing to battery usage. Commercial LMO/LTO lithium-ion battery cells were tested onboard four Scania trucks. The test equipment was designed for this type of HEV battery testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. This concept allows unobtrusive and low cost testing of battery cells under realistic conditions. Each truck is equipped with test equipment containing one cycled battery cell and one calendar aged cell. The hybrid strategy used in this test allows battery power and SOC to vary depending on drive pattern within certain limits. Battery capacity and resistance is measured periodically and this makes it possible to receive information about battery ageing without bringing the cells to the lab.

Series
ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862 ; 41
Keyword
Lithium ion battery, HEV, field testing, heavy-duty vehicles
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49094 (URN)10.1149/1.3698127 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879333975 (Scopus ID)978-160768331-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Challenges for Transportation Batteries - 220th ECS Meeting; Boston, MA; United States; 9 October 2011 through 14 October 2011
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150706

Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2015-07-06Bibliographically approved

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