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Comprehensive study of mtDNA among Southwest Asian dogs contradicts independent domestication of wolf, but implies dog–wolf hybridization
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
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2011 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 1, no 3, 373-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity indicate explicitly that dogs were domesticated, probably exclusively, in southern East Asia. However, Southwest Asia (SwAsia) has had poor representation and geographical coverage in these studies. Other studies based on archaeological and genome-wide SNP data have suggested an origin of dogs in SwAsia. Hence, it has been suspected that mtDNA evidence for this scenario may have remained undetected. In the first comprehensive investigation of genetic diversity among SwAsian dogs, we analyzed 582 bp of mtDNA for 345 indigenous dogs from across SwAsia, and compared with 1556 dogs across the Old World. We show that 97.4% of SwAsian dogs carry haplotypes belonging to a universal mtDNA gene pool, but that only a subset of this pool, five of the 10 principal haplogroups, is represented in SwAsia. A high frequency of haplogroup B, potentially signifying a local origin, was not paralleled with the high genetic diversity expected for a center of origin. Meanwhile, 2.6% of the SwAsian dogs carried the rare non-universal haplogroup d2. Thus, mtDNA data give no indication that dogs originated in SwAsia through independent domestication of wolf, but dog–wolf hybridization may have formed the local haplogroup d2 within this region. Southern East Asia remains the only region with virtually full extent of genetic variation, strongly indicating it to be the primary and probably sole center of wolf domestication. An origin of dogs in southern East Asia may have been overlooked by other studies due to a substantial lack of samples from this region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 1, no 3, 373-385 p.
Keyword [en]
Canis familiaris, domestication, fertile crescent, hybridization, mitochondrial DNA
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49714DOI: 10.1002/ece3.35ISI: 000312441000009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-49714DiVA: diva2:460203
Funder
Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscienceSwedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20111130

Available from: 2011-11-29 Created: 2011-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Molecular Profiling of the Population Dynamics: Foundation and Expansion of an Archaic Domesticate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular Profiling of the Population Dynamics: Foundation and Expansion of an Archaic Domesticate
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

"An ‘exponential growth of science’ throughout modern history has been frequently boasted by numerous narcissistic accounts of ‘modern humanity.’ Nonetheless, ‘modern science’ seems to have overwhelmingly compromised on its original promises by fitting into an ‘industrial scheme.’ With this concern, ‘molecular phylogeographics with conservational ambitions’ would look an intact ground for research efforts in a ‘school of biotechnology.’ The dog (Canis familiaris) as an earliest domestic animal has a history of conflicts over its origins and dispersal. Having those disputes addressed, valuable knowledge could be acquired on the nature and dynamics of domestication, and of human societies particularly of pre-agricultural ages. We employed two most widely-used genealogical markers, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY), to address dog demography. Through 582 bps of mtDNA Control Region, complemented with whole mitochondrial genomes, it was established that almost all maternal lineages of the domestic dog worldwide coalesce to a population of at least 51 and perhaps many more female wolves in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY) approximately 16,000 years before present (BP). This was based on the presence of a maximal diversity in this area, a descending gradient of diversity outward it, and a ubiquitous population structure everywhere in the world. A closer examination of this portrait in Southwest Asia (SwAsia) and the Fertile Crescent (FC), a region which has supplied persuasive evidence on early presence of the domestic dog, retrieved the same information, with implications for backbreeding with the local wolf population. Meanwhile, analyses of mtDNA dispersal showed that dogs took the long way via land to Madagascar Island, and not together with humans via sea. By the other approach, the NRY data in 14,437 bps length supplemented the mtDNA in reporting the height of diversity from ASY with a founding population of at least 13 male wolves, but expectably produced lower inter-regional differentiation by diversity. Screening of NRY by a SNP assay in the dingoes of Australia Island as a population of feral dogs revealed restricted and similar dispersal patterns for sires and dams. Prospects of ancient, multilocus and whole genome assays with the emerging high-throughput technologies has still more to promise on finer elaborations of these issues."

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. 47 p.
Series
Trita-BIO-Report, ISSN 1654-2312 ; 2012:7
Keyword
Dog, wolf, dingo, mtDNA, NRY, SNP, Madagascar, Australia, domestication
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95688 (URN)978-91-7501-349-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-08, Hilarp hörsal, Retzius väg 8, Solna, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20120529

Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved

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Uhlén, MathiasSavolainen, Peter

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