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Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, 49-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO2 abatement i.e. both possible CO2 capture and CO2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 97, 49-55 p.
Keyword [en]
Black liquor gasification, Synthetic natural gas, Pulp mill, CO2 emissions, Direct causticization
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50179DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.11.082ISI: 000307196000007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84862325326OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-50179DiVA: diva2:461209
Conference
3rd International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), Perugia, Italy, May 16-18, 2011
Note

QC 20121008

Available from: 2011-12-02 Created: 2011-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving energy systems of existing chemical pulp mills by integrating gasification technology.

The present study investigates bio-fuel alternatives from the dry black liquor gasification (BLG) system with direct causticization and direct methane production from the catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system. The studied systems are compared with bio-fuel alternatives from the Chemrec BLG system and the improvements in the energy systems of the pulp mill are analyzed. The results are used to identify the efficient route based on system performance indicators e.g. material and energy balances to compare BLG systems and the conventional recovery boiler system, potential biofuel production together with biomass to biofuel conversion efficiency, energy ratios, potential CO2 mitigation combining on-site CO2 reduction using CO2 capture and potential CO2 offsets from biofuel use, and potential motor fuel replacement.

The results showed that the dry BLG system for synthetic natural gas (SNG) production offers better integration opportunities with the chemical pulp mill in terms of overall material and energy balances. The biofuel production and conversion efficiency are higher in the CHG system than other studied configurations but at a cost of larger biomass import. The dry BLG system for SNG production achieved high biomass to biofuel efficiency and considerable biofuel production. The energy ratio is significant in the dry BLG (SNG) system with less biomass demand and considerable net steam production in the BLG island. The elimination of the lime kiln in the dry BLG systems resulted in reduced consequences of incremental biomass import and associated CO2 emissions. Hydrogen production in the dry BLG system showed the highest combined CO2 mitigation potential i.e. on-site CO2 capture potential and CO2 offset from biofuel replacing fossil fuel. The results also showed that the motor fuel replacement potential with SNG as compressed natural gas (CNG) replacing gasoline in the transport sector is significantly high in countries with large pulp industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. x, 73 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2012:16
Keyword
Bio-refinery, Biomass, Black liquor gasification, Bio-fuel, Pulp mill, CO2, Conversion efficiency, Integration, Synthesis gas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95524 (URN)978-91-7501-319-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120528Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved

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