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Impulse Radio UWB for the Internet-of-Things: A Study on UHF/UWB Hybrid Solution
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation investigates Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT). In particular, an ultra-high frequency (UHF) wireless-powered UWB radio (UHF/UWB hybrid) with asymmetric links is explored from system architecture to circuit implementation.

Context-aware, location-aware, and energy-aware computing for the IoT demands future micro-devices (e.g., RFID tags) with capabilities of sensing, processing, communication, and positioning, which can be integrated into everyday objects including paper documents, as well as food and pharmaceutical packages. To this end, reliable-operating and maintenance-free wireless networks with low-power and low-cost radio transceivers are essential. In this context, state-of-the-art passive RFID technologies provide limited data rate and positioning accuracy, whereas active radios suffer from high complexity and power-hungry transceivers. Impulse Radio UWB (IR-UWB) exhibits significant advantages that are expected to overcome these limitations. Wideband signals offer robust communications and high-precision positioning; duty-cycled operations allow link scalability; and baseband-like architecture facilitates extremely simple and low-power transmitters. However, the implementation of the IR-UWB receiver is still power-hungry and complex, and thus is unacceptable for self-powered or passive tags.

To cope with μW level power budget in wireless-powered systems, this dissertation proposes an UHF/UWB hybrid radio architecture with asymmetric links. It combines the passive UHF RFID and the IR-UWB transmitter. In the downlink (reader-tag), the tag is powered and controlled by UHF signals as conventional passive UHF tags, whereas it uses an IR-UWB transmitter to send data for a short time at a high rate in the uplink (tag-reader). Such an innovative architecture takes advantage of UWB transmissions, while the tag avoids the complex UWB receiver by shifting the burden to the reader. A wireless-powered tag providing -18.5 dBm sensitivity UHF downlink and 10 Mb/s UWB uplink is implemented in 180 nm CMOS. At the reader side, a non-coherent energy detection IR-UWB receiver is designed to pair the tag. The receiver is featured by high energy-efficiency and flexibility that supports multi-mode operations. A novel synchronization scheme based on the energy offset is suggested. It allows fast synchronization between the reader and tags, without increasing the hardware complexity. Time-of-Arrival (TOA) estimation schemes are analyzed and developed for the reader, which enables tag localization. The receiver prototype is fabricated in 90 nm CMOS with 16.3 mW power consumption and -79 dBm sensitivity at 10 Mb/s data rate. The system concept is verified by the link measurement between the tag and the reader. Compared with current passive UHF RFID systems, the UHF/UWB hybrid solution provides an order of magnitude improvement in terms of the data rate and positioning accuracy brought by the IR-UWB uplink.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. , xx, 94 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 11:15
Keyword [en]
Ultra-Wideband, impulse radio, IR-UWB, RFID, asymmetric links, UHF/UWB hybrid, wireless sensing, energy detection, low power, radio receiver, positioning, Internet-of-Things
National Category
Computer Systems Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-59107ISBN: 978-91-7501-206-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-59107DiVA: diva2:475116
Public defence
2012-02-08, Sal/Hall D, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120110Available from: 2012-01-10 Created: 2012-01-10 Last updated: 2012-01-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio
2007 (English)In: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, ISSN 0932-383X, Vol. 124, no 11, 397-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The next generation RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing requires both energy and system efficiency. This paper describes an efficient passive RFID system using impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB), at a 10 m operation range. Unlike conventional passive RFID systems which rely on backscatter and narrowband radio, IR-UWB is introduced as the uplink (communication from a tag to a reader). By utilizing a specialized communication protocol and a novel ALOHA-based anti-collision algorithm, such semi-UWB systems enable a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec) under the low power and low cost constraint. A low power tag design for proof of concept is finally presented.

Keyword
Broadband networks; Congestion control (communication); Electronic document identification systems; Radio links; Sensor networks, Impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB); Network throughput; Semi-UWB architecture; Ubiquitous sensing, Ubiquitous computing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13871 (URN)10.1007/s00502-007-0483-y (DOI)2-s2.0-37349003142 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2012-01-10Bibliographically approved
2. Baseband design for passive semi-UWB wireless sensor and identification systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baseband design for passive semi-UWB wireless sensor and identification systems
2007 (English)In: Proceedings - 20th Anniversary IEEE International SOC Conference / [ed] Sezer, S; Chen, SJ; Marshall, A; Tran, T, 2007, 313-316 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a digital baseband design for passive sensor and identification systems using asymmetric wireless links with ultra wideband (UWB) radio. As opposed to traditional wireless sensor and identification systems using halfduplex communication in narrowband frequency, impulse-LTWB is applied as an uplink in the proposed system. A novel baseband protocol is devised to improve the system efficiency in the multitag environment while maintaining the power constraint. By utilizing adaptive slotted ALOHA anti-collision algorithm, 1000 tags can be processed within 5OOms. The contributions also include the development of a low-power digital baseband processor for passive tags. The simulation is successful and the FPGA prototype is operational. The chip is implemented for ASIC and it Kill be fabricated and tested Kith the front-end in IP6M UMC 0. 18 mu m process.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-40704 (URN)000257572200070 ()2-s2.0-51049085059 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-1592-2 (ISBN)
Conference
20th IEEE International SOC Conference Location: Hsinchu, Taiwan, Date: SEP 26-29, 2007
Available from: 2011-09-22 Created: 2011-09-20 Last updated: 2012-01-10Bibliographically approved
3. A remote-powered RFID tag with 10Mb/s UWB Uplink and -18.5dBm sensitivity UHF downlink in 0.18μm CMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A remote-powered RFID tag with 10Mb/s UWB Uplink and -18.5dBm sensitivity UHF downlink in 0.18μm CMOS
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Digest of technical papers / IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSN 0193-6530, 198-199,199a p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a 10 Mb/s impulse UWB RFID tag in 0.18 mum CMOS is presented. The tag is remotely powered by a UHF signal with a minimum input RF power as low as 14.1 muW. The primary innovation is to employ two different communication links (UWB and UHF) respectively in the uplink and downlink of the tag. This is because the amount of data or instructions from a reader to a tag is small and as a result a conventional UHF-RFID link at 900MHz can be used as the downlink. The UHF signal also provides remote power to the tag. The uplink requires higher data rates and precise positioning capability therefore an l-UWB transmitter is employed.

Keyword
CMOS integrated circuits, radiofrequency identification, ultra wideband communication, CMOS, UHF downlink, UWB uplink, bit rate 100 Mbit/s, frequency 900 MHz, power 14.1 muW, remote-powered RFID tag, size 0.18 mum
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13913 (URN)10.1109/ISSCC.2009.4977376 (DOI)2-s2.0-70349282144 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100701. Uppdaterad från konferensbidrag (2009 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference ISSCC 2009) till artikel (20100701). Available from: 2010-07-01 Created: 2010-07-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. A Low-Power and Flexible Energy Detection IR-UWB Receiver for RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Low-Power and Flexible Energy Detection IR-UWB Receiver for RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks
Show others...
2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, Vol. 58, no 7, 1470-1482 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an energy detection Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) receiver for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) applications. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) consisting of a 3-5 GHz analog front-end, a timing circuit and a high speed baseband controller is implemented in a 90 nm standard CMOS technology. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is employed as a reconfigurable back-end, enabling adaptive baseband algorithms and ranging estimations. The proposed architecture is featured by high flexibility that adopts a wide range of pulse rate (512 kHz-33 MHz), processing gain (0-18 dB), correlation schemes, synchronization algorithms, and modulation schemes (PPM/OOK). The receiver prototype was fabricated and measured. The power consumption of the ASIC is 16.3 mW at 1 V power supply, which promises a minimal energy consumption of 0.5 nJ/bit. The whole link is evaluated together with a UWB RFID tag. Bit error rate (BER) measurement displays a sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s with 10(-3) BER achieved by the proposed receiver, corresponding to an operation distance over 10 meters under the FCC regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Keyword
Energy detection, Internet-of-Things, low power receiver, sensitivity, ultra-wideband (UWB)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-45298 (URN)10.1109/TCSI.2011.2142930 (DOI)000295587100003 ()2-s2.0-79959795819 (Scopus ID)
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20111028

Available from: 2011-10-28 Created: 2011-10-28 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
5. Impulse UWB Energy Detection Receiver with Energy Offset Synchronization Scheme
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impulse UWB Energy Detection Receiver with Energy Offset Synchronization Scheme
2009 (English)In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRA-WIDEBAND (ICUWB 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, 540-544 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Impulse ultra-wideband radios (IR-UWB) show strong advantages in low power and low cost applications such as RFIDs and wireless sensor networks. This paper presents an IR-UWB receiver based on Energy Detection (ED) with on-off keying (OOK) modulation. A novel synchronization and detection algorithm using the energy offset scheme with adaptive threshold detection is suggested, aiming to reduce energy consumption and simplify hardware complexity. Simulation and FPGA implementation reveal that the proposed method can avoid complex and power consuming synchronization blocks, and reduce the preamble length, whereas maintaining the performance in the target level. Hardware integration issues are discussed, implying that the proposed receiver architecture has the possibility to achieve low complexity and low power implementation with several nJs energy per bit, at a data rate of 10Mb/s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2009
Keyword
Adaptive thresholds, Data rates, Detection algorithm, Energy consumption, Energy detection, Energy offset, Energy-per-bit, Hardware complexity, Hardware integrations, Low complexity, Low cost applications, Low Power, Low power implementation, On-off keying modulations, Power consuming, Receiver architecture, Synchronization scheme, Target levels, Ultra-wideband radio, UWB receivers, Radio receivers, Signal detection, Synchronization, Wireless sensor networks, Wireless telecommunication systems
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32035 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2009.5288726 (DOI)000287267300106 ()2-s2.0-71949087028 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-2930-1 (ISBN)
Conference
9th IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, Vancouver, CANADA, SEP 09-11, 2009
Note
QC 20110504Available from: 2011-04-05 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2012-02-13Bibliographically approved
6. Energy detection receiver with TOA estimation enabling positioningin passive UWB-RFID system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy detection receiver with TOA estimation enabling positioningin passive UWB-RFID system
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB 2010), IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, 1-4 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a passive UWB-RFID systemwith Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) positioning from systemto circuit perspectives. Wireless powered RFID tags with UWBtransmitter transmit wideband pulses to readers, allowing highaccurate Time-of-Arrival (TOA) estimation. Low power lowcomplexity TOA estimations using energy detection receiver areinvestigated. Max Energy Select (MES), Threshold Comparison(TC), and MES-Search-Back (MES-SB) algorithms are evaluatedand analyzed. As a special focus, a prototype of the proposedenergy detection receiver is designed and implemented. It consistsof a 3.1-4.8 GHz IR-UWB analog frontend with high speed digitalcircuits in 90 nm CMOS, and a flexible back-end with a TOAestimator on FPGA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
Keyword
radiofrequency identification, receivers, time-of-arrival estimation, transmitters, ultra wideband communication
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-52361 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2010.5615993 (DOI)2-s2.0-78650052552 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5305-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB 2010)
Note
© 2010 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. QC 20111223Available from: 2011-12-23 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2012-01-10Bibliographically approved

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