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Security in Stockholm's underground stations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5302-1698
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
2013 (English)In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 26, no 1, 33-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this article is to report on the security conditions in underground stations and surrounding areas in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The study is based on a comprehensive fieldwork combined with Geographical Information Systems techniques and regression models. Findings show that a relatively small share of reported events is crime; acts of public disorder are more common at the stations. Events tend to happen in the evenings - nights, holidays and weekends - and, at least for theft, in the hotter months of the year. Although the highest number of events is found in the central station, the so-called 'end-stations' show often higher rates than those located in the inner city. Results show that opportunities for crime are dependent on stations' environmental attributes, type of neighbourhood in which they are located and city context. These findings lend weight to principles of traditional urban criminology theory such as routine activity and social disorganisation. The article concludes with directions for future research and suggestions for policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 26, no 1, 33-59 p.
Keyword [en]
crime and disorder, transport nodes, GIS, regression models, Scandinavian capital
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-61265DOI: 10.1057/sj.2011.32ISI: 000313745200003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84872438643OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-61265DiVA: diva2:478839
Projects
Safety in Stockholm´s undergroundstations: The importance of environmental attributes and context
Note

QC 20130204

Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Clusters of urban crime and safety in transport nodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clusters of urban crime and safety in transport nodes
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis is to provide a better understanding of the safety conditions inurban environments, particularly related to those found in transport nodes, in this case,underground stations, and surrounding areas1. First, the study starts with an analysis of theoverall city, identifying concentrations of crime in the urban fabric and then focusing on thecriminogenic conditions at and around underground stations. The analysis combines the useof Geographical Information Systems (GIS), statistical techniques and data of different typesand sources. Regression models were used to assess the importance of the environmentalattributes of underground stations on crime rates. Findings show that violent and propertycrimes show different hotspots at different times. Crime patterns tend to follow people’sscheduled patterns of routine activity. The socio-economic composition of the surroundingenvironment of the stations has a significant impact on crime at these transport nodes, butmore important were attributes of the physical and social environment at the stations. Forinstance, low guardianship and poor visibility at the stations together with mixed land-usesin the surrounding areas induced crime rates at the stations. It is therefore suggested thatintervention to improve safety conditions at the stations should focus on a holistic approach,taking into account the station and surrounding areas, but also being aware of crimevariation on specific places at specific times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 34 p.
Series
TRITA-FOB
Series
Trita-FOB-Lic, 2013:2
Keyword
safety, urban crime, space-time clusters, crime concentrations, GIS, environmental attributes, public transport, underground stations, transport nodes, crime prevention
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-117906 (URN)978-91-85783-27-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-03-01, V3, Teknikringen 72, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Safety in transport nodes: the influence of environmental attributes on crime and perceived safety
Note

QC 20130207

Available from: 2013-02-07 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2013-02-07Bibliographically approved
2. Crime Clusters and Safety in Underground Stations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crime Clusters and Safety in Underground Stations
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis is to explore ways to assess safety in an urban context and intransport nodes. The thesis is composed of articles which aim at assessing whether safety levels vary within a city, at a public transportation network, particularly at stations, and finally making suggestions to increase safety in these environments. The analysis makes use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), statistical techniques and combines several different data sources. Fieldwork supports the data sources by presenting an investigation of the current environment at and around the underground stations in Stockholm. Regression models were used to assess the (strength) relationships between levels of crime and the socialand physical environment at underground stations.

Findings show that urban crime in Stockholm municipality concentrates in stable hotspots, however, varying by type of crime, in different places at different times. A majority of the hotspots were located close to underground stations. The environment at underground stations has a significant impact on the crime levels at these transport nodes. For instance, low guardianship opportunities were related with higher crime rates, while well-illuminated and open stations showed lower crime rates. An open lay-out would provide better opportunities for guardianship, which in turn may decrease crime levels. The surrounding socio-economic composition of neighborhoods and the physical and social environment surrounding the stations affected crime levels similarly. For instance, mixed land-uses surrounding the station could be linked to increased crime rates. However, crime levels showed a varying distribution over time and space. Different stations showed different levels of crime at different times of the day, moreover, this also showed to be depended on crime type. For instance, theft wouldconcentrate at central stations at peak hours, when it is most crowded. The results include suggestions for policymakers and organizations dealing with urban safety, planning and public transportation, such as police, transportation companies and municipal planners.

The results suggest that crime interventions should take into account the dynamic patterns of crime and adopt a more holistic approach taking into account the station and its surroundings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 42 p.
Series
TRITA-KTH-CEFIN-DT, ISSN 1654-9376 ; 09
Keyword
Safety, urban crime, crime distribution, spatial-temproal patterns, underground stations, public transport, environmental attributes, crime prevention
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141168 (URN)978-91-87111-95-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Safety in Transport Nodes: The Influence of Environmental Attrivutes on Crime and Perceived Safety
Note

QC 20140211

Available from: 2014-02-11 Created: 2014-02-10 Last updated: 2014-02-11Bibliographically approved

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