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Live Streaming Performance of Peer-to-Peer Systems
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming systems peers organize themselves in an overlay and contributewith their resources to help diffuse live content to all peers in a timely manner. The performanceof such systems is usually characterized by the delay-loss curve, which quantifies theplayback delay required for achieving a certain streaming quality, expressed as the chunk missingratio at the peers. The streaming quality is determined by the overlay construction algorithm, theforwarding algorithm, the loss process in the underlying network, the number of peers in the overlayand their bandwidth distribution, the willingness of the peers to contribute with their resourcesand the viewing behavior of the peers (churn). The overlay construction and forwarding algorithmsare inherent characteristics of a P2P protocol, while the remaining factors are artifacts of thedeployment of the P2P system over a best-effort network such as the Internet, as well as the factthat peers act as independent agents. The current thesis addresses the problem of evaluating andimproving the performance of P2P streaming protocols based on models of the network and of thepeers' behavior. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the performance evaluation of P2P overlay constructionand forwarding algorithms and offers three contributions. First, we study the efficiency of datadistribution in multiple tree-based overlays employing forward error correction. We deriveanalytical expressions for the average packet possession probability as well as its asymptoticbounds and verify our results through simulations. Second, we evaluate the performance of astreaming system in the presence of free-riders. We define two admission control policies and studythe streaming feasibility using an analytical model and via simulations. Third, we present ananalytic framework for the evaluation of forwarding algorithms in mesh-based systems. We validate itvia simulations and use it to evaluate and to compare four push-based forwarding algorithms in termsof their delay-loss curves. The second part of the thesis investigates potential improvements to the operation of P2P streamingsystems and offers three contributions in that area. First, we study the impact of selfish peerbehavior on streaming quality in overlays where a fraction of peers has limited contribution due tophysical constraints. We show that selfish peer behavior results in suboptimal streaming quality andwe propose an incentive mechanism that increases the streaming quality by using the server uploadcapacity to reward high contributing peers. Second, we study the problem of building network aware P2P streaming overlays, taking into accountrecent measurement results that indicate that the AS-level topology of the Internet is flattening.Through extensive simulations on regular and measured topologies we show that it is possible tocreate better than random overlays relying on information about the underlying topology. Finally, westudy the problem of playout adaptation in P2P streaming systems under churn. We propose andevaluate two algorithms that tune the playback delay of the peers in such a way that the streamingquality of the peers is maintained within predetermined limits. We use simulations to show thecorrectness of the proposed algorithms and the benefits from their use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , vii, 43 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-70153ISBN: 978-91-7501-241-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-70153DiVA: diva2:485980
Public defence
2012-02-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120130Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Streaming performance in multiple-tree-based overlays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Streaming performance in multiple-tree-based overlays
2007 (English)In: NETWORKING 2007: Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet, Proceedings / [ed] Akyildiz, IF; Sivakumar, R; Ekici, E; DeOliveira, JC; McNair, J, 2007, 617-627 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we evaluate the data transmission performance of a generalized multiple-tree-based overlay architecture for peer-to-peer live streaming that employs multipath transmission and forward error correction. We give mathematical models to describe the error recovery in the presence of packet losses. We evaluate the data distribution performance of the overlay, its asymptotic behavior, the stability regions for the data transmission, and analyze the system behavior around the stability threshold. We argue that the composed measure of the mean and the variance of the packet possession probability can support adaptive forward error correction.

Series
Lecture Notes In Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 4479
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12692 (URN)000246476200053 ()2-s2.0-37249047462 (Scopus ID)978-3-540-72605-0 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International IFIP-TC 6 Networking Conference Location: Atlanta, GA Date: MAY 14-18, 2007
Note

QC 20100506

Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
2. Delay and playout probability trade-off in mesh-based peer-to-peer streaming with delayed buffer map updates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delay and playout probability trade-off in mesh-based peer-to-peer streaming with delayed buffer map updates
2009 (English)In: Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, ISSN 1936-6442, E-ISSN 1936-6450, Vol. 3, no 3, 208-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In mesh-based peer-to-peer streaming systemsdata is distributed among the peers according tolocal scheduling decisions. The local decisions affecthow packets get distributed in the mesh, the probabilityof duplicates and consequently, the probabilityof timely data delivery. In this paper we proposean analytic framework that allows the evaluation ofscheduling algorithms. We consider four solutions inwhich scheduling is performed at the forwarding peer,based on the knowledge of the playout buffer contentat the neighbors. We evaluate the effectiveness of thesolutions in terms of the probability that a peer can playout a packet versus the playback delay, the sensitivityof the solutions to the accuracy of the knowledge of theneighbors’ playout buffer contents, and the scalabilityof the solutions with respect to the size of the overlay.We also show how the model can be used to evaluatethe effects of node arrivals and departures on the overlay’sperformance.

Keyword
Mesh-based streaming, Delay performance
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12695 (URN)10.1007/s12083-009-0049-3 (DOI)000284095100004 ()2-s2.0-77955176963 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100506Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. On the effect of free-riders in P2P streaming systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the effect of free-riders in P2P streaming systems
2008 (English)In: 2008 4TH INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKING WORKSHOP ON QOS IN MULTISERVICE IP NETWORKS, 2008, 8-13 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Peer-to-peer applications exploit the users willingness to contribute with their upload transmission capacity, achieving this way a scalable system where the available transmission capacity increases with the number of participating users. Since not all the users can offer upload capacity with high bitrate and reliability, it is of interest to see how these non-contributing users can be supported by a peer-to-peer application. In this paper we investigate how free-riders, that is, non-contributing users can be served in a peer-to-peer streaming system. We consider different policies of dealing with free-riders and discuss how performance parameters such as blocking and disconnection of free-riders are influenced by these policies, the overlay structure and system parameters as overlay size and source upload capacity. The results show that while the multiple-tree structure may affect the performance free-riders receive, the utilization of the transmission resources is still comparable to that of an optimized overlay.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12694 (URN)10.1109/ITNEWS.2008.4488122 (DOI)000257132600002 ()2-s2.0-50149093031 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-1844-2 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Telecommunication Networking Workshop on QoS in Multiservice IP Networks Venezia, ITALY, FEB 13-15, 2008
Note
QC 20100506Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved
4. Server Guaranteed Cap: an incentive mechanism for maximizing streaming quality in heterogeneous overlays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Server Guaranteed Cap: an incentive mechanism for maximizing streaming quality in heterogeneous overlays
2010 (English)In: NETWORKING 2010, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Crovella M; Feeney LM; Rubenstein D; Raghavan SV, 2010, 315-326 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We address the problem of maximizing the social welfare in a peer-to-peel streaming overlay given a fixed amount of server upload capacity. We show that peers' selfish behavior leads to an equilibrium that is suboptimal in terms of social welfare, because selfish peers are interested in forming clusters and exchanging data among themselves In order to increase the social welfare we propose a novel incentive mechanism: Server Guaranteed Cap (SGC), that uses the server capacity as an incentive for high contributing peers to upload to low contributing ones We prove that SGC is individually rational anti incentive compatible We also show that under very general conditions, there exists exactly one server capacity allocation that maximizes the social welfare under SGC, hence simple gradient based method can be used to find the optimal allocation

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 6091
Keyword
p2p streaming, incentive mechanisms, social welfare
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12696 (URN)000280469400025 ()2-s2.0-77953270545 (Scopus ID)978-3-642-12962-9 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International IFIP-TC 6 Networking Conference, Indian Inst Technol Madras, Chennai, INDIA, MAY 11-15, 2010
Note
QC 20110302Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved
5. Playout Adaptation in Peer-to-Peer Systems Under Churn
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Playout Adaptation in Peer-to-Peer Systems Under Churn
2012 (English)In: 2012 19th International Packet Video Workshop, PV 2012, IEEE , 2012, 119-124 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We address the problem of playout adaptation in peer-to-peer streaming systems. We propose two algorithms for playout adaptation: one coordinated and one distributed. The algorithms dynamically adapt the playback delay of the peers so that the playout miss ratio is maintained within a predefined interval. We validate the algorithms and evaluate their performance through simulations under various churn models. We show that playout adaptation is essential in peer-to-peer systems when the system size changes. At the same time, our results show that distributed adaptation performs well only if the peers in the overlay have similar playback delays. Thus, some form of coordination among the peers is necessary for distributed playout adaptation in peer-to-peer streaming systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Peer-to-peer streaming, Peer-to-Peer system, Playback delay, System size
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-66450 (URN)10.1109/PV.2012.6229723 (DOI)2-s2.0-84864506284 (Scopus ID)978-146730301-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 19th International Packet Video Workshop, PV 2012; Munich;10 May 2012 through 11 May 2012
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20120904

Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2013-10-02Bibliographically approved
6. Small-world Streaming: Network-aware Streaming Overlay Construction Policies for a Flat Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small-world Streaming: Network-aware Streaming Overlay Construction Policies for a Flat Internet
2011 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent measurements indicate that the peering agreements betweenAutonomous Systems (AS) are flattening the AS level topology of theInternet. The transition to a more flat AS topology opens up for newpossibilities for proximity-aware peer-to-peer overlay construction. Inthis paper we consider the problem of the construction of overlays  forlive peer-to-peer streaming  that leverage peering connections tothe maximum extent possible, and investigate how a limited number ofoverlay connections over transit links should be chosen such as tomaximize the streaming performance. We define a set of transit overlaylink establishment policies that leverage topological characteristics ofthe AS graph. We evaluate their performance over regular AS topologiesusing extensive simulations, and show that the performance difference between the policies can be up to an order of magnitude. Thus, it is possible to maximize the system performance by leveraging the characteristics of the AS graph. Based on our results we also argue that the average loss probability is not an adequate measure of the performance of proximity-aware overlays.  We confirm our findings via simulations over a graph of the peering AS topology of over 600 ASs obtained from a large measurement data set.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-66453 (URN)
Note

QC 20121221

Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2012-12-21Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf