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3D-woven Reinforcement in Composites
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Composites made from three-dimensional (3D) textile preforms can reduce  both the weight and manufacturing cost of advanced composite structures  within e.g. aircraft, naval vessels and blades of wind turbines. In this thesis composite beams reinforced with 3D weave are studied, which are intended for use as joining elements in a boltless modular design. 

In practice, there are a few obstacles on the way to realise the modular boltless design. There is lack of experimental data and more importantly, lack of experience and tools to predict the properties of composites reinforced with 3D-weaves. The novel material will not be accepted and used in engineering applications unless proper design methods are available. 

The overall aim of this thesis is to remedy these deficiencies by generating data, experience and a foundation for the development of adequate design methods. 

In Paper A, an initial experimental study is presented where the mechanical properties of 3D-weave reinforced composites are compared with corresponding properties of 2D-laminates. The conclusion from Paper A is that the out- of-plane properties are enhanced, while the in-plane stiffness and strength is reduced. 

In Paper B the influential crimp parameter is investigated and three analytical models are proposed. The warp yarns exhibit 3D crimp which had a large effect the predicted Young’s modulus as expected. The three models have different levels of detail, and the more sophisticated models generate more reliable predictions. However, the overall trends are consistent for all models. 

A novel framework for constitutive modelling of composites reinforced with 3D-woven preforms is presented in Papers C and D. The framework enables predictive modelling of both internal architecture and mechanical properties of composites containing 3D textiles using a minimum of input parameters. The result is geometry models which are near authentic with a high level of detail in features compared with real composite specimens. The proposed methodology is therefore the main contribution of this thesis to the field of composite material simulation. 

Paper E addresses the effect of crimp and different textile architectures on the mechanical properties of the final composite material. Both stiffness and strength decreases non-linearly with increasing crimp. Furthermore specimens containing 3D-woven reinforcement exhibit non-linear stress-strain behaviour in tension, believed to be associated with relatively early onset of matrix shear cracks. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , ix, 38 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2012:01
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-70438ISBN: 978-91-7501-245-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-70438DiVA: diva2:486314
Public defence
2012-02-17, Sal F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120131

Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2013-04-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Assessment of the mechanical properties of a new 3D woven fibre  composite material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the mechanical properties of a new 3D woven fibre  composite material
2009 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 69, no 11-12, 1686-1692 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fully interlaced 3D fabric is produced by a new weaving technology, and it is here utilised to produce woven carbon fibre preforms, which are then used as reinforcement in composite materials. The purpose of this study is to assess the mechanical performance of this new type of composite material. A prototype loom was used to weave preforms with a rectangular cross-section where all warp and weft yarns were fully interlaced in plain weave. Tensile, compressive, out-of-plane, shear and flexural properties of the composite flat beam specimens were tested. The in-plane stiffness and strength were found to be lower, while the out-of-plane properties were higher compared to conventional 2D laminates. In terms of strength, it was not possible to quantify the difference, since the specimens with 3D woven material exhibited other failure modes than those tested for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Keyword
3D weaves, textile composites, mechanical properties
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10233 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2008.04.047 (DOI)000268522500003 ()2-s2.0-67649121747 (Scopus ID)
Projects
MOJO
Note

QC 20101029. Uppdaterad från In press till Published (20101029). QC 20150729. QC 20160129

Available from: 2009-04-20 Created: 2009-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Influence of Crimp on 3D-woven Fibre Reinforced Composites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Crimp on 3D-woven Fibre Reinforced Composites
2013 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 95, 114-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three analytical models are developed for prediction of the longitudinal Young's modulus of carbon fibre composite materials containing fully interlaced 3D-woven textile reinforcement. Two of the non-linear models utilise rods and springs and are designed to handle an idealised periodic repetitive volume element of the composite material. For validation, an experimental study is performed, and a more detailed model is built using existing textile software (TexGen and WiseTex). All models are employed to explore the effect of three-dimensional yarn crimp on the longitudinal Young's modulus, and they give at hand that the longitudinal stiffness decreases non-linearly with increasing crimp. One of the proposed models agrees particularly well with the experimental results but there are also a few sources of discrepancy, such as shape distortions in the textile architecture.

Keyword
3D weave, Carbon fibre composite materials, Crimp, Detailed models, Experimental studies, Fibre reinforced composites, Longitudinal stiffness, Longitudinal Young's modulus, Non-linear model, Shape distortions, Textile composite, Volume elements, Woven textiles
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10234 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.07.022 (DOI)000311859400014 ()2-s2.0-84868120835 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121207

Available from: 2009-04-20 Created: 2009-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Spatial modelling of 3D-woven textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial modelling of 3D-woven textiles
2012 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 94, no 5, 1495-1502 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When analysing for instance permeability and mechanical behaviour of advanced textiles, a representative description of the textiles' architecture is desired. Realistic geometric representations of textiles are however often either difficult to obtain due to limitations in modelling tools, or judged unfeasible to generate due to unreasonable modelling efforts. In this paper a scheme is presented that enables modelling of the internal strand geometry including details of the strand path and smoothly varying cross-section size and shape, on a meso-scale. The main modelling artifice is to initially model the strand perimeters as inflatable tubes in an explicit finite element simulation. The tubes are initially made slender to avoid strand inter-penetration, and then expanded under general contact conditions until the desired volume fraction of strand is reached. For validation a model is compared with pictures from a computer tomography scan of a 3-dimensionally woven carbon fibre preform. The correlation between the simulated geometry and the real sample is striking. The results also indicate that the approach is relatively robust in terms of sensitiveness to variations of input data and starting conditions.

Keyword
3D weave, 3D textile, Composites, Geometric model, Crimp, Preform
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-70399 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.12.003 (DOI)000302980400002 ()2-s2.0-84858699039 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120131

Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. A Modelling Framework for Composites containing 3D Reinforcement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Modelling Framework for Composites containing 3D Reinforcement
2012 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 94, no 9, 2895-2901 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Composite materials reinforced with three-dimensionally (3D) woven carbon fibre textiles are investigated and the challenge and the driver for the work is to generate numerical models to predict the mechanical behaviour of these composites. The result of the final modelling stage is near authentic finite element (FE) models of representative volume elements (RVE)s of the composites. They are created by using only a small number of input parameters, such as the size of the RVE, the number of yarns and their mutual interlacing, and the yarn crimp. The FE models may then be utilised for various purposes but are here used to derive homogenised elastic mechanical properties of 3D reinforced composite materials. The correlation between the models and experiments is good, both in terms of details in the architecture and mechanical properties. There are however some deviations that could be explained by the models being more regular than the real material.

National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-70402 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.03.009 (DOI)000305600600022 ()2-s2.0-84861526312 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120716

Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Effects of Crimp and Textile Architecture on  the Tensile Response of Composites with 3D Reinforcement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Crimp and Textile Architecture on  the Tensile Response of Composites with 3D Reinforcement
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-70405 (URN)
Note

QC 20160516

Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2016-05-16Bibliographically approved

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