Characteristics and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China
2010 (English)In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 165, no 1-4, 295-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A field campaign was conducted to measure and analyze 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in six major zones in the city of Shanghai, P.R. China from August 2006 to April 2007. Ambient air samples were collected seasonally using passive air samplers, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used in this field campaign. The results showed that there was a sequence of 13 PAHs at Phen > FA > Pyr > Chr > Fl > An > BaA > BbFA > BghiP > IcdP > BkFA > BaP > DahA and the sum of these PAHs is 36.01 ± 10.85 ng/m3 in gas phase. FL, Phen, FA, Pyr, and Chr were the dominant PAHs in gas phase in the city. They contributed 90% of total PAHs in the gas phase. Proportion of measured PAHs with three, four, five, and six rings to total PAHs was 53%, 42%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The highest concentration of ∑PAHs (the sum of 13 PAHs) occurred in the wintertime and the lowest was in the summer. This investigation suggested that traffic, wood combustion, and metal scrap burn emissions were dominant sources of the concentrations of PAHs in six city zones compared with coal burning and industry emissions. Further, the traffic emission sources of PAHs in the city were attributed mostly to gasoline-powered vehicles compared with diesel-powered vehicles. It was revealed that the seasonal changes in PAHs in the city depended on different source types. Metal scrap burn was found to be the major source of PAHs during the autumn, while the PAH levels in the atmosphere for winter and spring seasons were mainly influenced by wood and biomass combustion. Comparisons of PAHs among different city zones and with several other cities worldwide were also made and discussed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 165, no 1-4, 295-305 p.
BaPE, Diagnostic ratio, Human exposure, PAHs, Shanghai
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-75005DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-0946-1ISI: 000277371000025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-75005DiVA: diva2:490297
QC 201202082012-02-042012-02-042012-02-08Bibliographically approved