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Sustainability Aspects of Transport Bio-fuels from Black liquor gasification – a System Analysis
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. (Energy processes)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-85452OAI: diva2:499793
QS 2012Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving energy systems of existing chemical pulp mills by integrating gasification technology.

The present study investigates bio-fuel alternatives from the dry black liquor gasification (BLG) system with direct causticization and direct methane production from the catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system. The studied systems are compared with bio-fuel alternatives from the Chemrec BLG system and the improvements in the energy systems of the pulp mill are analyzed. The results are used to identify the efficient route based on system performance indicators e.g. material and energy balances to compare BLG systems and the conventional recovery boiler system, potential biofuel production together with biomass to biofuel conversion efficiency, energy ratios, potential CO2 mitigation combining on-site CO2 reduction using CO2 capture and potential CO2 offsets from biofuel use, and potential motor fuel replacement.

The results showed that the dry BLG system for synthetic natural gas (SNG) production offers better integration opportunities with the chemical pulp mill in terms of overall material and energy balances. The biofuel production and conversion efficiency are higher in the CHG system than other studied configurations but at a cost of larger biomass import. The dry BLG system for SNG production achieved high biomass to biofuel efficiency and considerable biofuel production. The energy ratio is significant in the dry BLG (SNG) system with less biomass demand and considerable net steam production in the BLG island. The elimination of the lime kiln in the dry BLG systems resulted in reduced consequences of incremental biomass import and associated CO2 emissions. Hydrogen production in the dry BLG system showed the highest combined CO2 mitigation potential i.e. on-site CO2 capture potential and CO2 offset from biofuel replacing fossil fuel. The results also showed that the motor fuel replacement potential with SNG as compressed natural gas (CNG) replacing gasoline in the transport sector is significantly high in countries with large pulp industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. x, 73 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2012:16
Bio-refinery, Biomass, Black liquor gasification, Bio-fuel, Pulp mill, CO2, Conversion efficiency, Integration, Synthesis gas
National Category
Energy Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95524 (URN)978-91-7501-319-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
QC 20120528Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved

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