Energy consumption of a number of modern Scandinavian electric passenger train operations is studied. The trains are X 2000, Regina, OTU (Øresundstoget), Type 71 “Flytoget”and Type 73 “Signatur”. Energy measurements are made in regular train operations inSweden, Denmark and Norway. For Regina and Flytoget long time series (at least oneyear) are available, while shorter time series are available for the other train types. Energydata for new trains (introduced since 1999) are collected in the years 2002-2005. Energydata from 1994 are used for X 2000 and are corrected for operational conditions of 2004.For comparison, energy data for an older loco-hauled train of 1994 is also used.In the present study energy consumption for propulsion, on-board comfort and catering, aswell as idling outside scheduled service, is determined. The energy consumption includeslosses in the railway’s electrical supply, i.e. the determined amount of energy is as suppliedfrom the public electrical grid.Emissions of air pollutants, due to production of the electric energy used, are alsodetermined, in this case CO2, NOx, HC and CO. Three alternative determinations are made:(1) Pollution from average electric energy on the common Nordic market;(2) Pollution from “Green” electric energy from renewable sources;(3) Marginal contribution for an additional train or passenger, short-term and long-term.The newly introduced EU Emissions Trading Scheme with emission allowances willmost likely limit the long-term emissions independently of the actual amount ofelectric energy used by electric trains.It is shown that the investigated modern passenger train operations of years 2002- 2005 usea quite modest amount of energy, in spite of the higher speeds compared with trains of1994. For comparable operations the energy consumption is reduced by typically 25 – 30 %per seat-km or per passenger-km if compared with the older loco-hauled trains. The reasonsfor the improved energy performance are:(1) Improved aerodynamics compared with older trains (reduced air drag);(2) Regenerative braking (i.e. energy is recovered when braking the train);(3) Lower train mass per seat;(4) Improved energy efficiency in power supply, partly due to more advancedtechnologies of the trains.Energy consumption per passenger-km is very dependent of the actual load factor (i.e. ratiobetween the number of passenger-km and the offered number of seat-km). For longdistance operations load factors are quite high, typically 55 - 60 % in Scandinavia. In thismarket segment energy consumption is determined to around 0.08 kWh per pass-km. Forfast regional services with electric trains, the load factors vary from typically 20 to about40 %, while the energy consumption varies from 0.07 kWh per pass-km (for the highestload factor) to 0.18 kWh/pass-km.However, also in the latter cases the investigated trains are very competitive to other modesof transport with regard to energy consumption and emissions of air pollutants.
2006. , 50 p.