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Burnout and Sleep
Karolinska Institutet. (National Institute of Psychosocial Factors and Health)
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academia Press, 2005. , vii, 81 p.
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89260ISBN: 91-7140-466-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-89260DiVA: diva2:502892
Supervisors
Note
Medicine Doktor. QC 20120220Available from: 2012-02-20 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2012-02-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Microarousals during sleep are associated with increased levels of lipids, cortisol, and blood pressure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microarousals during sleep are associated with increased levels of lipids, cortisol, and blood pressure
2004 (English)In: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 66, no 6, 925-931 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Previous work has demonstrated a link between restricted sleep and risk indicators for cardiovascular and metabolic disease, such as levels of cortisol, lipids, and glucose. The present study sought to identify relations between polysomnographic measures of disturbed sleep (frequency of arousals from sleep, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency) and a number of such indicators. A second purpose was to relate the number of arousals to mood, stress, work characteristics, and other possible predictors in daily life. Methods: Twenty-four people (10 men, 14 women; mean age 30 years), high vs. low on burnout, were recruited from a Swedish IT company. Polysomnographically recorded sleep was measured at home before a workday. Blood pressure, heart rate, morning blood sample, and saliva samples of cortisol were measured the subsequent working day. They were also recorded for diary ratings of sleep and stress, and a questionnaire with ratings of sleep, stress, work conditions, and mood was completed. Results: A stepwise regression analysis using sleep parameters as predictors brought out number of arousals as the best predictor of morning cortisol (serum and saliva), heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and LDL/HDL-ratio. Work stress/unclear boundaries between work and leisure time was the best predictor of arousals among the stress variables. Conclusion: Consistent with sleep restriction experiments, sleep fragmentation was associated with elevated levels of metabolic and cardiovascular risk indicators of stress-related disorders. Number of arousals also seems to be related to workload/stress.

Keyword
sleep arousals, polysomnography, metabolic, cortisol, stress, burnout
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-87248 (URN)10.1097/01.psy.0000145821.25453.f7 (DOI)000225347900019 ()15564359 (PubMedID)
Note
QC 20120224Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Disturbed sleep and fatigue in occupational burnout
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disturbed sleep and fatigue in occupational burnout
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 32, no 2, 121-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep with polysomnography and self-ratings and the diurnal pattern of sleepiness and fatigue in a group suffering from severe occupational burnout.

METHOD: Twelve white-collar workers on long-term sick leave (>3 months) and 12 healthy controls with high and low scores on the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) were included. A 1-night polysomnographic recording (after habituation) was carried out at home, and sleepiness and mental fatigue were rated at different times of the day for weekdays and the weekend. Precipitating factors at the time of the illness at work and real life were considered, and different dimensions of occupational fatigue were described. A repeated-measures analysis of variance using two or three within group factors was used to analyze the data.

RESULTS: The main polysomnographic findings were more arousals and sleep fragmentation, more wake time and stage-1 sleep, lower sleep efficiency, less slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep, and a lower delta power density in non-rapid eye movement sleep in the burnout group. The burnout patients showed pronounced sleepiness and mental fatigue at most times of the day for weekdays without reduction during weekends. The precipitating factor was occupational stress (psychiatric interview), and work stress indicators were increased.

CONCLUSIONS: Occupational burnout is characterized by impaired sleep. It is suggested that impaired sleep may play a role in the development of fatigue or exhaustion in burnout.

Keyword
arousal, burnout, mental fatigue, polysomnography, sleep, sleepiness
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-87244 (URN)000237435100005 ()16680382 (PubMedID)
Note
QC 20120224Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Sleep and sleepiness in young individuals with high burnout scores
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep and sleepiness in young individuals with high burnout scores
Show others...
2004 (English)In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 27, no 7, 1369-1377 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Study Objectives: Burnout is a growing health problem in Western society. This study aimed to investigate sleep in subjects scoring high on burnout but still at work. The purpose was also to study the diurnal pattern of sleepiness, as well as ratings of work stress and mood in groups with different burnout scores. Design: Sleep was recorded in 2 groups (high vs low on burnout) during 2 nights; 1 before a workday and 1 before a day off, in a balanced order. Sleepiness ratings as well as daytime diary ratings were analyzed for the workday and the day off after the sleep recordings. Setting: The polysomnographic recordings were made in the subjects' home. Participants: Twenty-four healthy individuals (14 women and 10 men) between the ages of 24 and 43 years participated. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: A higher frequency of arousals during sleep (Workday: high burnout = 12 +/- 1 per hour, low burnout = 8 +/- 1 per hour; Day off: high burnout = 12 2 per hour, low burnout = 8 +/- 1 per hour), and more subjective awakening problems were found in the high-burnout group. The diurnal pattern of sleepiness indicated that the high-burnout group did not recover in the same way as did the low-burnout group on the day off. Indicators of impaired recovery were also seen within the high-burnout group as a higher degree of bringing work home and working on weekends, as well as more complaints of work interfering with leisure time. Conclusions: Young subjects with high burnout scores, but who are still working, show more arousals during sleep and an absence of reduced sleepiness during days off.

Keyword
polysomnography, burnout, arousals, sleepiness, day off, recovery
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-87247 (URN)000225093100016 ()15586790 (PubMedID)
Note
QC 20120224Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Lived experiences of the time preceding burnout
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lived experiences of the time preceding burnout
2005 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 49, no 1, 59-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: This paper reports a study to illuminate the complex interaction between person and their life world during the burnout development period.

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a construct describing the psychological state resulting from ineffective strategies for coping with enduring stress in both client and non-client work. Role conflict and role ambiguity, or long-term stress and frustration caused by strain in daily life, promote or exacerbate burnout, indicating that the person's entire life world is involved. There is still a lack of description of lived experiences of the time preceding manifest burnout.

METHOD: Data were collected from interviews with eight people suffering from burnout and analysed using a phenomenological method.

FINDINGS: The essential meaning of the phenomenon of burnout is understood as being trapped with stimulating challenges as a self-nourishing drive on one side and with responsibilities and demands on the other. This essence can be illuminated by its eight constituents: inner incentive, feeling responsible, threatened self-image, cutting off, bodily manifestations, psychological manifestations, fatigue and reaching the bottom line.

CONCLUSIONS: The lived experiences of the time preceding manifest burnout are an ambiguous struggle. Cutting off is understood as a mean to shelter the threatened self-image in a state of vulnerability and weakened strength. Accordingly, a better understanding of how to reach behind the defence of 'cutting off' and thus help to open up for consolation and self-acceptance is an essential skill for nurses, health care professionals and others encountering the burnout sufferers. Furthermore this study illuminates early signs of burnout and an important issue is how to strengthen the individuals' ability to shelter their need for recovery and restitution.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-87246 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03264.x (DOI)15610382 (PubMedID)
Note
QC 20120228Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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