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On the Stability and Dynamics of Semiconductor Lasers
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT. (Photonics)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3056-4678
1994 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 1994.
Series
Trita-MVT, ISSN 0348-4467 ; 1994:1
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89578OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-89578DiVA: diva2:503162
Public defence
1994-09-15, Kollegiesalen, KTH, Drottning Kristinas Väg, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130201

Available from: 2013-02-01 Created: 2012-02-15 Last updated: 2013-02-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Measurement of a VPE-transported DFB laser with blue-shifted frequency modulation response from DC to 2 GHz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of a VPE-transported DFB laser with blue-shifted frequency modulation response from DC to 2 GHz
Show others...
1988 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 24, 746-747 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The frequency modulation characteristics of a VPE-transported 1.53 mu;m wavelength GaInAsP-InP DFB semiconductor diode laser was measured. Below approximately 0.7 mW optical output power per facet, it exhibited a smooth, blue-shifted, frequency modulation response from DC to 2 GHz. In the modulation frequency range of 10 MHz to 100 MHz it exhibited a | Delta;f/ Delta;I| of 0.5-1.8 GHz/mA, depending on the biasing level

Keyword
0 to 2 GHz; 0.7 mW; 1.53 micron; GaInAsP-InP; VPE-transported DFB laser; blue-shifted frequency modulation response; frequency modulation characteristics; modulation frequency range; optical output power; semiconductors; III-V semiconductors; distributed feedback lasers; frequency modulation; gallium arsenide; gallium compounds; indium compounds; optical communication equipment; optical modulation; semiconductor junction lasers; vapour phase epitaxial growth;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89272 (URN)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Pure frequency modulation or intensity modulation with suppressed frequency chirp using active Bragg reflector integrated laser
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pure frequency modulation or intensity modulation with suppressed frequency chirp using active Bragg reflector integrated laser
1989 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 25, 304-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The modulation properties of a laser structure which consists of an active Bragg reflector (300 mu m) integrated with an uncorrugated gain region (600 mu m) have been measured. The laser exhibited a flat FM response and very low spurious intensity modulation when modulating the current in the Bragg reflector. Furthermore, broadband intensity modulation with suppressed frequency chirp could also be achieved. An inhomogeneous linewidth enhancement factor alpha caused by the uneven carrier density distribution between the two sections gives a qualitative explanation to our results.

Keyword
300 micron;600 micron;active Bragg reflector integrated laser;broadband intensity modulation;flat FM response;inhomogeneous linewidth enhancement factor;intensity modulation;modulation properties;spurious intensity modulation;suppressed frequency chirp;uncorrugated gain region;uneven carrier density distribution;distributed Bragg reflector lasers;frequency modulation;optical modulation;semiconductor junction lasers;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89273 (URN)10.1049/el:19890212 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Broadband measurements of frequency noise spectrum in two section DBR laser
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broadband measurements of frequency noise spectrum in two section DBR laser
1991 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 27, 289-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dependence of the frequency noise on the output power, the tuning current and the current modulation has been measured in a two electrode DBR laser from 30 MHz to 8 GHz. The frequency noise spectrum was fairly flat and decreased with increased output power at a rate faster than 1/P. At certain biasing levels, the noise increased and the relaxation peak was shifted towards lower frequencies when current was injected into the passive waveguide. Furthermore, the frequency noise was not affected by the current modulation.

Keyword
30 to 8 GHz;current modulation;frequency noise spectrum;output power;passive waveguide;relaxation peak;semiconductor laser;tuning current;two electrode laser;two section DBR laser;distributed feedback lasers;electron device noise;optical modulation;optical waveguides;random noise;semiconductor junction lasers;tuning;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89274 (URN)10.1049/el:19910183 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Longitudinal spatial instability in symmetric semiconductor lasers due to spatial hole burning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal spatial instability in symmetric semiconductor lasers due to spatial hole burning
1992 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, E-ISSN 1558-1713, Vol. 28, 1443-1449 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel type of longitudinal instability due to spatial hole burning in symmetric semiconductor laser structures (DFB lasers in particular) is examined analytically and numerically. It is shown that, at a certain output power, the gain and refractive index spatial distributions of the lasing mode become unstable. Above this output power, the modal gains and oscillation frequencies change drastically, which often causes multimode operation. A measure of the cavity stability is introduced and derived analytically for a Fabry-Perot and a single phase-shifted DFB laser. Results from numerical simulations of a multiple phase-shifted DFB laser are presented

Keyword
Fabry-Perot;cavity stability;diode lasers;laser cavity resonator;laser gain;lasing mode;longitudinal instability;modal gains;multimode operation;oscillation frequencies;output power;refractive index spatial distributions;single phase-shifted DFB laser;spatial hole burning;spatial instability;symmetric semiconductor lasers;distributed feedback lasers;laser modes;laser theory;optical hole burning;refractive index;semiconductor junction lasers;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89277 (URN)10.1109/3.135296 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Cross-correlation measurements of intensity noise from the two facets of DFB lasers during linewidth rebroadening
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-correlation measurements of intensity noise from the two facets of DFB lasers during linewidth rebroadening
1992 (English)In: Semiconductor Laser Conference , 1992. Conference Digest. 13th IEEE International, 1992, 266-267 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Not available

National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89276 (URN)10.1109/ISLC.1992.763665 (DOI)
Conference
IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2013-02-01Bibliographically approved
6. Dynamics of spatial hole burning effects in DFB lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamics of spatial hole burning effects in DFB lasers
1995 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, E-ISSN 1558-1713, Vol. 31, 1981-1993 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A lumped small-signal model for intensity and frequency modulation response of semiconductor lasers, including the effects of longitudinal spatial hole burning (SHB), is presented. It is shown that the laser dynamics including SHB-effects can be accurately described by three small-signal rate equations. The simplicity of the model gives new insight into SHB-effects on modulation response and cavity state stability. It is shown that SHB-effects have a cut-off frequency that depends on the carrier lifetime (including stimulated recombination) and the feedback of perturbations in the longitudinal intensity distribution during modulation

Keyword
DFB laser dynamics;SHB-effects;carrier lifetime;cavity state stability;cut-off frequency;frequency modulation response;intensity modulation response;laser dynamics;longitudinal intensity distribution;longitudinal spatial hole burning;lumped small-signal model;modulation response;perturbation feedback;semiconductor lasers;small-signal rate equations;spatial hole burning effects;stimulated recombination;carrier lifetime;distributed feedback lasers;fluctuations;frequency modulation;laser theory;optical hole burning;optical modulation;semiconductor device models;semiconductor lasers;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89286 (URN)10.1109/3.469279 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
7. The effect of stitching errors on the spectral characteristics of DFB lasers fabricated using electron beam lithography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of stitching errors on the spectral characteristics of DFB lasers fabricated using electron beam lithography
1992 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 10, 1256-1266 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Field stitching errors and their effect on the single-mode characteristics of distributed feedback (DFB) lasers fabricated using electron beam lithography were investigated. The stitching errors are associated with small-area, high-resolution electron beam exposure, which has the potential advantage of high-speed writing of laser gratings. Measurements show that the errors are composed of a systematic and a stochastic part. Their effect on the gain margin was simulated both for lambda;/4 phase-shifted and optimized multiple-phase-shifted DFB lasers. Simulations show that the lasers are insensitive to the systematic part of the stitching errors if the number of errors is large enough. The stochastic part was found to give rise to a variation in gain margin of the DFB lasers. It is concluded that the field stitching accuracy in the high-resolution mode of a commercial system for electron beam lithography is sufficient to provide a high yield of single-mode lasers. However, it is essential that certain precautions be taken considering exposure conditions and that a fault tolerant laser design be used

Keyword
Bragg grating;DFB lasers;InP-InGaAsP laser;electron beam lithography;fault tolerant laser design;gain margin;high-resolution electron beam exposure;high-speed writing;laser gratings;phase shifted lasers;simulation;single-mode characteristics;spectral characteristics;stitching errors;stochastic errors;systematic errors;III-V semiconductors;diffraction gratings;distributed feedback lasers;electron beam lithography;errors;gallium arsenide;gallium compounds;indium compounds;optical workshop techniques;semiconductor lasers;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89275 (URN)10.1109/50.156877 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
8. Investigation on the spectral characteristics of DFB lasers with different grating configurations made by electron-beam lithography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation on the spectral characteristics of DFB lasers with different grating configurations made by electron-beam lithography
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1993 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 11, 1405-1415 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The single-mode stability for distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers with various electron-beam-written grating configurations has been investigated theoretically and experimentally, for both as-cleaved and AR-coated lasers. Other laser properties interesting for coherent and multichannel communications systems, such as linewidth and tunability, have also briefly been investigated. Lasers with more sophisticated grating structures, such as an optimized multiple phase-shifted or a corrugation-pitch-modulated grating, did not exhibit performance significantly superior to that of lambda;/4-shifted DFB lasers with an appropriate coupling coefficient. Antireflection (AR)-coating of the end facets proved indispensable for obtaining a high yield for lasers with single-mode operation at high output power and for reducing the large chip-to-chip variation seen for the as-cleaved lasers. A theoretical investigation of the effect of end reflections on the stopband and of the problem of determining the coupling coefficient was also made

Keyword
lambda;/4-shifted;AR-coated lasers;DFB lasers;antireflection coatings;as-cleaved;chip-to-chip variation;coherent optical links;corrugation-pitch-modulated grating;coupling coefficient;distributed-feedback;electron-beam lithography;electron-beam-written grating configurations;end facets;end reflections;high output power;high yield;laser properties;linewidth;multichannel communications systems;optimized multiple phase-shifted;semiconductor laser diodes;single-mode operation;single-mode stability;spectral characteristics;stopband;tunability;antireflection coatings;diffraction gratings;distributed feedback lasers;electron beam lithography;laser modes;laser tuning;optical films;semiconductor lasers;spectral line breadth;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89279 (URN)10.1109/50.241930 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
9. Improved spectral characteristics of MQW-DFB lasers by incorporation of multiple phase-shifts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved spectral characteristics of MQW-DFB lasers by incorporation of multiple phase-shifts
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1995 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 13, 434-441 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The single-mode stability of strained-layer MQW-DFB lasers with electron-beam written gratings containing zero, one and three phase-shifts, and with a relatively large coupling strength, has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated lasers with the multiple phase-shifted (MPS) structure exhibited a higher degree of stability than the lambda;/4-shifted lasers, and a considerably improved stability for both categories with phase-shifts compared to the nonshifted lasers was obtained. These results were in good agreement with our simulations. An investigation of the linewidths of the phase-shifted lasers is also presented. The MPS lasers had a significantly lower linewidth floor (down to 600 kHz) than those with one phase-shift. There was no degradation of the side-mode suppression-ratio correlated to the linewidth floor or rebroadening. A possible explanation for the lower linewidth floors obtained for the MPS lasers is that this structure is less sensitive to inhomogeneous carrier fluctuations. Longitudinal fluctuations in the shape of the photon density distribution will thereby be suppressed

Keyword
lambda;/4-shifted lasers;InGaAsP-InP;InGaAsP-InP laser diode;MQW-DFB lasers;electron-beam written gratings;inhomogeneous carrier fluctuations;large coupling strength;linewidth floor;linewidths;multiple phase-shifted structure;multiple phase-shifts;phase-shifted lasers;photon density distribution;rebroadening;side-mode suppression-ratio;simulation;single-mode stability;spectral characteristics;stability;strained-layer MQW-DFB lasers;III-V semiconductors;distributed feedback lasers;electron beam applications;fluctuations;gallium arsenide;gallium compounds;indium compounds;laser modes;laser stability;quantum well lasers;spectral line breadth;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89285 (URN)10.1109/50.372439 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
10. Parameter extraction from DFB lasers by means of a simple expression for the spontaneous emission spectrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parameter extraction from DFB lasers by means of a simple expression for the spontaneous emission spectrum
1994 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 6, 1182-1184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A simple expression for the amplified spontaneous emission from a laser biased below lasing threshold is applied to semiconductor laser parameter extraction. We demonstrate that accurate measurement of the coupling coefficient for distributed feedback (DFB) lasers with phaseshifts and end reflections is a practical possibility. It is also shown that the used expression, for a reciprocal device, can be derived directly from the wave equation using the Green’s function.<>

Keyword
DFB lasers;Green’s function;accurate measurement;amplified spontaneous emission;coupling coefficient;distributed feedback lasers;end reflections;lasing threshold;phaseshifts;reciprocal device;semiconductor laser parameter extraction;spontaneous emission spectrum;wave equation;Green’s function methods;distributed feedback lasers;laser theory;semiconductor lasers;superradiance;
National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89283 (URN)10.1109/68.329632 (DOI)
Note

NR 20140805

Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
11. Steady state model for facet heating leading to thermal runaway in semiconductor lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Steady state model for facet heating leading to thermal runaway in semiconductor lasers
1994 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 76, 2509-2521 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A steady state model is presented which provides new insight into the thermal runaway process that leads to catastrophic damage of semiconductor lasers. We show that thermal runaway is preceded by a situation where two self consistent thermal steady state solutions exist at low output power, one stable and one unstable. When the output power is increased, the two solutions degenerate and disappear which means that the laser will enter thermal runaway. The steady state model consists of two parts: a three dimensional thermal model and a one dimensional model for the carrier diffusion towards the facet. The temperature dependence of both the heat sources and the thermal conductivity play the crucial role. Also ordinary bulk heating is shown to be an important factor. Both 0.88 #x3bc;m GaAs lasers and 1.5 #x3bc;m InGaAsP lasers are discussed and minimum values of surface recombination and output power needed for thermal runaway are given. Thermal runaway in GaAs lasers can be explained by the model for realistic values of surface recombination. However, the calculated values of needed output power are significantly higher than what is experienced in reality. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are given.

National Category
Telecommunications Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89282 (URN)10.1063/1.358509 (DOI)
Note
NR 20140805Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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