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PMU-Assisted Local Optimization of the Coordination between Protective Systems and Reactive Power Compensation Devices
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
2011 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

With increasing population, expansion of cities, raise in the number of large industries and the need for the development of societies, there is a steady increase in the demand of electric power resulting in issues with power system stability. This is reflected by the fact that, in several instances, a single equipment failure, mal-operation of the protection relay or operator’s error, can lead the power system to a cascading failure and eventually to collapse. It is indeed a necessity to verify the operation of the power system under all critical operating conditions and to confirm the coordination of various power system equipments with each other before they are commissioned in the real world. It is perhaps not possible to design a real power system just for experimental purposes so that one can apply different faults in the network and analyze the behavior of the system to propose a new refined and effective solution that guarantees the safe opearation of system. The most efficient way of carrying out such detailed and complex analysis is with the help of Real-Time Simulators. Power system operators have already adopted synchrophasor data from phasor measurement units (PMUs) for real-time monitoring and control of power systems. The wellestablished standard (IEEE C37.118), the utilization of phasor measurements to improve power system reliability and frequent advancement in technology is paving the way to use synchrophasor data for not only monitoring and visualizing, but also to have a reliable and economical operation of power systems. In this thesis an “All-in-One”system is modeled in SimPowerSystems (MATLAB/Simulink) and simulated in real-time using Opal-RT real time Simulator to investigate long term voltage instability scenarios. This proposed “All-in-One” power system model allows the analysis of the transient, voltage and frequency instabilities by implementing different faults and different generation and load scenarios. The time at which voltage instability is introduced and the system collapses is analyzed along with the impact of voltage instability on all the power system components present in the “All-in-One”test system. Later, an overcurrent relay is modeled and verified for different characteristic curves (standard inverse, long inverse and very inverse). This model of overcurrent relay is then implemented in all-in-one system at strategic locations and is coordinated to mitigate voltage collapse. Two different protection schemes are proposed to provide complete protection for the all-in-one system. In the next step, reactive power compensation devices are modeled and implemented in the all-in-one system to provide reactive power compensation for a system subject to voltage instability. Finally the coordination of overall system is carried out to optimize the performance of the power system in case of voltage instability and to ensure reliable and efficient supply of electrical power to the consumer end (load). This is achieved by using phasors from synchronized phasor measurement units to determine the most recent values of positive sequence voltages and currents in several critical components. Using this knowledge in conjunction with information from protective relays, alows for a local optimization on the system’s response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EES Examensarbete / Master Thesis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-89895OAI: diva2:503941
Subject / course
Electric Power Systems
Educational program
Master of Science - Electric Power Engineering
Available from: 2012-02-17 Created: 2012-02-17 Last updated: 2012-03-23Bibliographically approved

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