Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Wire-bonder-assisted integration of non-bondable SMA wires into MEMS substrates
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3452-6361
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8853-0967
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 055025-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a novel technique for the integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires and other non-bondable wire materials into silicon-based microelectromechanical system structures using a standard wire-bonding tool. The efficient placement and alignment functions of the wire-bonding tool are used to mechanically attach the wire to deep-etched silicon anchoring and clamping structures. This approach enables a reliable and accurate integration of wire materials that cannot be wire bonded by traditional means.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2012. Vol. 22, no 5, p. 055025-
Keyword [en]
Bonding, Electromechanical devices, Integration, MEMS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-90858DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/22/5/055025ISI: 000303197000025Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84860433128OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-90858DiVA, id: diva2:506935
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 267528 277879
Note
QC 20120528Available from: 2012-04-20 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heterogeneous Integration of Shape Memory Alloysfor High-Performance Microvalves
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous Integration of Shape Memory Alloysfor High-Performance Microvalves
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents methods for fabricating MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) actuators and high-flow gas microvalves using wafer-level integration of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) in the form of wires and sheets.

The work output per volume of SMA actuators exceeds that of other microactuation mechanisms, such as electrostatic, magnetic and piezoelectric actuation, by more than an order of magnitude, making SMA actuators highly promising for applications requiring high forces and large displacements. The use of SMAs in MEMS has so far been limited, partially due to a lack of cost efficient and reliable wafer-level integration approaches. This thesis presents new methods for wafer-level integration of nickel-titanium SMA sheets and wires. For SMA sheets, a technique for the integration of patterned SMA sheets to silicon wafers using gold-silicon eutectic bonding is demonstrated. A method for selective release of gold-silicon eutectically bonded microstructures by localized electrochemical etching, is also presented. For SMA wires, alignment and placement of NiTi wires is demonstrated forboth a manual approach, using specially built wire frame tools, and a semiautomatic approach, using a commercially available wire bonder. Methods for fixing wires to wafers using either polymers, nickel electroplating or mechanical silicon clamps are also shown. Nickel electroplating offers the most promising permanent fixing technique, since both a strong mechanical and good electrical connection to the wire is achieved during the same process step. Resistively heated microactuators are also fabricated by integrating prestrained SMA wires onto silicon cantilevers. These microactuators exhibit displacements that are among the highest yet reported. The actuators also feature a relatively low power consumption and high reliability during longterm cycling.

New designs for gas microvalves are presented and valves using both SMA sheets and SMA wires for actuation are fabricated. The SMA-sheet microvalve exhibits a pneumatic performance per footprint area, three times higher than that of previous microvalves. The SMA-wire-actuated microvalve also allows control of high gas flows and in addition, offers benefits of lowvoltage actuation and low overall power consumption.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. p. viii, 79
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2012:014
Keyword
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, silicon, wafer-level, integration, heterogeneous integration, wafer bonding, Au-Si, eutectic bonding, release etching, electrochemical etching, microvalves, microactuators, shape memory alloy, SMA, NiTinol, TiNi, NiTi, cold-state reset, bias spring, gate valves, wire bonding
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-94088 (URN)978-91-7501-304-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-01, sal E3, Osquarsbacke 14, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120514Available from: 2012-05-14 Created: 2012-05-07 Last updated: 2012-05-14Bibliographically approved
2. Integration and Fabrication Techniques for 3D Micro- and Nanodevices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration and Fabrication Techniques for 3D Micro- and Nanodevices
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of micro and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) with entirely new or improved functionalities is typically based on novel or improved designs, materials and fabrication methods. However, today’s micro- and nano-fabrication is restrained by manufacturing paradigms that have been established by the integrated circuit (IC) industry over the past few decades. The exclusive use of IC manufacturing technologies leads to limited material choices, limited design flexibility and consequently to sub-optimal MEMS and NEMS devices. The work presented in this thesis breaks new ground with a multitude of novel approaches for the integration of non-standard materials that enable the fabrication of 3D micro and nanoelectromechanical systems. The objective of this thesis is to highlight methods that make use of non-standard materials with superior characteristics or methods that use standard materials and fabrication techniques in a novel context. The overall goal is to propose suitable and cost-efficient fabrication and integration methods, which can easily be made available to the industry.

The first part of the thesis deals with the integration of bulk wire materials. A novel approach for the integration of at least partly ferromagnetic bulk wire materials has been implemented for the fabrication of high aspect ratio through silicon vias. Standard wire bonding technology, a very mature back-end technology, has been adapted for yet another through silicon via fabrication method and applications including liquid and vacuum packaging as well as microactuators based on shape memory alloy wires. As this thesis reveals, wire bonding, as a versatile and highly efficient technology, can be utilized for applications far beyond traditional interconnections in electronics packaging.

The second part presents two approaches for the 3D heterogeneous integration based on layer transfer. Highly efficient monocrystalline silicon/ germanium is integrated on wafer-level for the fabrication of uncooled thermal image sensors and monolayer-graphene is integrated on chip-level for the use in diaphragm-based pressure sensors.

The last part introduces a novel additive fabrication method for layer-bylayer printing of 3D silicon micro- and nano-structures. This method combines existing technologies, including focused ion beam implantation and chemical vapor deposition of silicon, in order to establish a high-resolution fabrication process that is related to popular 3D printing techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. p. xv, 91
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:001
Keyword
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, Nanoelectromechanical systems, NEMS, silicon, wafer-level, chip-level, through silicon via, TSV, packaging, 3D packaging, vacuum packaging, liquid encapsulation, integration, heterogeneous integration, wafer bonding, microactuators, shape memory alloy, SMA, wire bonding, magnetic assembly, self-assembly, 3D, 3D printing, focused ion beam, FIB
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107125 (URN)978-91-7501-583-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-01-18, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121207

Available from: 2012-12-07 Created: 2012-12-06 Last updated: 2016-08-11Bibliographically approved
3. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bonding technology and substitute the conventional micro welding approach with an innovative attachment concept, a generic integration platform for a multitude of wire materials is provided. This facilitates a cost-efficient and selective integration, which involves the attachment and shaping of a variety of intrinsically non-bondable wire materials. Furthermore, the selective integration of wire materials provides a simple method to generate complex suspended geometries, which circumvents the need for subsequent processing. The first part of this thesis reports of the integration of non-bondable shape memory alloy wires on wafer-level, which has led to an innovative method to fabricate micro actuators. Moreover, the integration of high performance resistive heating wires on chip-level is utilized to fabricate filament based infrared emitters, targeting non-dispersive infrared gas sensing of alcohol for automotive applications. In the second part, a series of unconventional applications of wire integration using the traditional thermo-sonic wire bonding approach is presented. A novel and low-cost nitric oxide gas sensor is realized by producing vertical bond wires featuring high aspect ratio. Next, the high placement accuracy of wire bonding tools is leveraged to integrate conductive metals cores for fabricating high aspect ratio through silicon vias. Finally, an advanced packaging approach for stress-sensitive MEMS gyroscopes is evaluated, which exclusively utilizes bond wires for realizing the die attachment.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling presenterar nya integrationsmetoder av trådmaterial för tillverkning och kapsling av mikro-elektromekaniska system (MEMS), genom att undersöka okonventionella tillämpningar av trådbondningsteknik.Trådbondning används traditionellt för att skapa elektrisk kontakt mellan chip och kapsel i integrerade kretsar. Det är en etablerad back-end teknologi med fördelar som hög hastighet, flexibilitet och placeringsnoggrannhet. Genom att utnyttja fördelarna hos toppmodern trådbondningsteknik och ersätta konventionell mikrosvetsning med ett innovativt koncept för att fästa tråden, tillhandahålls en generisk integrationsplattform för en mängd olika trådmaterial. Detta tillåter en kostnadseffektiv och selektiv integrering vilken består av fixering och formning av en rad icke-bondbara trådmaterial. Vidare ger den selektiva integrationen av trådmaterial en enkel metod för att generera komplexa suspenderade geometrier, som gör efterföljande bearbetning överflödig.Den första delen av avhandlingen beskriver integration av icke-bondbar minnesmetall på kiselskivor, som möjliggjort en innovativ metod för att tillverka mikroaktuatorer. Dessutom används integration av högkvalitativa resistiva trådar på chip-nivå för att tillverka filamentbaserade infraröda emittrar, ämnade för gasmätning av alkohol i fordon. I andra delen presenteras en serie av okonventionella tillämpningar av trådintegration med användning av den traditionella termo-soniska trådbondningsmetoden. En ny och billig kväveoxidgassensor tillverkades genom att producera vertikala bondtrådar på chip. Den exakta placeringsnoggrannheten hos trådbondningsverktyget används för att integrera metallkärnor som skapar en elektrisk kontakt genom kisel. Slutligen utvärderas en avancerad fixering av stresskänsliga MEMS-gyroskop i kapsel, vilket uteslutande utnyttjar bindningstrådar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 92
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:8
Keyword
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), heterogeneous 3D integration, wire bonding, wire integration, transfer wafer bonding, nondispersive infrared gas sensing, low-stress packaging, shape memory alloy (SMA), infrared (IR) emitter, through silicon via (TSV), ethanol sensing, nitric oxide gas sensing, wafer-level, chip-level, Kanthal, nickel chromium (NiCr)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222346 (URN)978-91-7729-673-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-02, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 277879VINNOVA, 2015-00402
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1998 kB)811 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1998 kBChecksum SHA-512
33e35d828541f0bad2fb834fb59daf905f75020187908c234a1de60d28801a097c9254ba35addcb72c8fcfc10a0a391ba0a55901751588fbb1774bd867ac81f1
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textScopusIOP Science

Authority records BETA

Fischer, Andreas C.Schröder, StephanStemme, Göranvan der Wijngaart, WouterNiklaus, Frank

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Fischer, Andreas C.Gradin, HenrikSchröder, StephanBraun, StefanStemme, Göranvan der Wijngaart, WouterNiklaus, Frank
By organisation
Microsystem Technology
In the same journal
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 811 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 347 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf