Energy Usage prediction model comparing Indoor Vs. Outdoor Ice Rinks
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Indoor ice rinks use 1091 MWh per annum for ice hockey based on statistics from over 100 Swedish ice rinks (Stoppsladd, 2011).The refrigeration system contributes 35 to75%( (Rogstam, 2010) of total energy usage in ice rinks with average value of 43% (Stoppsladd, 2010) for indoor to 75% for outdoor ice rinks.
The basic aim of project is to reduce energy consumption in Swedish ice rinks and scope is for indoor and outdoor ice rinks in cold and mild summer climatic conditions like Sweden. To achieve target of energy reduction in ice rinks actual heat loads on outdoor bandy ice rink are being estimated along with performance analysis of refrigeration machine. The refrigeration system, heat loads on ice surface and their correlation is studied and analyzed in detail for Norrtälje Outdoor bandy ice rink for four warm days and whole season 2010-2011. The tricky and significant task of validation of input climate data for accurate heat loads calculations is completed with Swedish Metrological & Hydrological (SMHI) climate model data, correlations and related web based geographical data.
The heat loads (conductive, convective and radiant) on outdoor bandy ice rink are calculated through thermodynamic relations with validated input climate data and measurements where as refrigeration system performance is monitored and analyzed with ClimaCheck(CC) instrumentation. The average cooling capacity is calculated for four warm days by CC internal method and actual cooling energy produced is obtained by practically assumed COP of system with aid of MYCOM compressor software. The cooling capacity and heat loads on ice surface are compared and analyzed considering energy usage affecting parameters and weather parameters like temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar load. The convection and condensation are contributing 75%, radiation 18%, ice resurfacing 4% and ground and header heat gain 3% to total heat loads on ice sheet for whole season. The deviation between total cooling energy produced by refrigeration machine and total heat load energy is found 19% and 27% for four warm days and whole season 2010-2011.The deviation is due to overestimation of heat losses from compressor’s body, compressor’s on and off operations, overestimated radiation heat load due to unmeasured negative radiation and lack of actual ice resurfacing heat load evaluation.
The developed model in MS Excel allows comparison of field climate data with SMHI model data, indoor and outdoor ice rinks in terms of predicted energy usage by refrigeration system and in total and acts as decision tool to choose for building an indoor/outdoor ice rink.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 49 p.
Ice rink, Refrigeration, Energy Efficiency, Heat Load, Cooling capacity, Energy Usage, Measurement, Climate Change, Model
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-91164OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-91164DiVA: diva2:508382
Subject / course
Master of Science - Innovative Sustainable Energy Engineering
2011-11-14, M274, Brinellvägen 68, 10044, Stockholm, 09:15 (English)
Sawalha, Samer, Researcher and Teacher
Palm, Björn, Professor / Head of Division