In Stage 1 of the EU/FP7-funded project TOSCA (Technology Opportunities and Strategies toward Climate-friendly trAnsport) the techno-economical feasibility of different technologies and means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being analysed for the different modes of transport. This is made in the long-term perspective until 2050, with 2009 as the reference year. This is the report on rail passenger transport, applicable to the European Union (EU-27).The present report has been subject to review among railway experts, representing train suppliers, railway operators as well as academia. They have also responded to a questionnaire. Further, a workshop was held, where the report with assumptions and results was discussed.In the analysis presented in this report it is estimated that a number of efficient improvements that, individually and in combination, are available in order to significantly reduce energy use and the resulting GHG emissions on the rail passenger market until 2050. The analysis has considered different technologies and means:
– low air drag
– low train mass
– energy recovery
– eco-driving, including traffic flow management
– space efficiency in trains (increasing payload per metre of train)
– incremental improvements of energy efficiency, in particular reduced losses.
Despite anticipated higher average train speeds in the future these combined approaches will, according to the analysis, have the potential to reduce the average specific energy use per passenger-km (pkm) in the order of 45–50 % in the very long term until 2050. As a consequ-ence also the direct and indirect GHG emissions will be reduced. The highest reductions are possible in city and regional rail operations. Reductions are more limited in high-speed opera-tions, because of the advanced technologies already applied. However, high-speed rail has today a comparatively low energy use per passenger-km, partly due to its high average load factor. To be consistent with other work packages of TOSCA, energy use and GHG emissions are measured per passenger-km, assuming representative load factors in different operations.
2011. , 39 p.