Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
Plasma and Coatings Physics Division, Linköping, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8591-1003
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 21, no 2, 025005- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lower deposition rate for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) compared with direct current magnetron sputtering for the same average power is often reported as a drawback. The often invoked reason is back-attraction of ionized sputtered material to the target due to a substantial negative potential profile, sometimes called an extended presheath, from the location of ionization toward the cathode. Recent studies in HiPIMS devices, using floating-emitting and swept-Langmuir probes, show that such extended potential profiles do exist, and that the electric fields E-z directed toward the target can be strong enough to seriously reduce ion transport to the substrate. However, they also show that the potential drops involved can vary by up to an order of magnitude from case to case. There is a clear need to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify the key discharge variables that can be used for minimizing the back-attraction. We here present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem of electric fields E-z in the ionization region part of HiPIMS discharges, and their effect on the transport of ionized sputtered material. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of a 'sweet spot' in parameter space in which the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material is low. It is concluded that a sweet spot might possibly exist for some carefully optimized discharges, but probably in a rather narrow window of parameters. As a measure of how far a discharge is from such a window, a Townsend product Pi(Townsend) is proposed. A parametric analysis of Pi(Townsend) shows that the search for a sweet spot is complicated by the fact that contradictory demands appear for several of the externally controllable parameters such as high/low working gas pressure, short/long pulse length, high/low pulse power and high/low magnetic field strength.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 21, no 2, 025005- p.
Keyword [en]
Deposition rates, Electric fields, Ionization potential, Magnetic fields, Magnetron sputtering, Plasma sheaths
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-93998DOI: 10.1088/0963-0252/21/2/025005ISI: 000302779400019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84859609472OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-93998DiVA: diva2:524858
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note
QC 20120504Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2012-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modeling High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

HiPIMS, high power impulse magnetron sputtering, is a promising technology that has attracted a lot of attention ever since its appearance. A time-dependent plasma discharge model has been developed for the ionization region in HiPIMS discharges. As a flexible modeling tool, it can be used to explore the temporal variations of the ionized fractions of the working gas and the sputtered vapor, the electron density and temperature, and the gas rarefaction and refill processes. The model development has proceeded in steps. A basic version IRM I is fitted to the experimental data from a HiPIMS discharge with 100 μs long pulses and an aluminum target. A close fit to the experimental current waveform, and values of density, temperature, gas rarefaction, as well as the degree of ionization shows the validity of the model. Then an improved version is first used for an investigation of reasons for deposition rate loss, and then fitted for another HiPIMS discharge with 400 μs long pulses and an aluminum target to investigate gas rarefaction, degree of ionization, degree of self sputtering, and the loss in deposition rate, respectively. Through these results from the model, we could analyse further the potential distribution and its evolution as well as the possibility of a high deposition rate window to optimize the HiPIMS discharge.

Besides this modeling, measurements of HiPIMS discharges with 100 μs long pulses and a copper target are made and analyzed. A description, based on three different types of current systems during the ignition, transition and steady phase, is used to describe the evolution of the current density distribution in the pulsed plasma. The internal current density ratio is a key transport parameter. It is reported how it varies with space and time, governing the cross-B resistivity and the energy of the charged particles. From the current ratio the electron cross-B transport can be obtained and used as essential input when modeling the axial electric field, governing the back-attraction of ions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xii, 52 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2012:017
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-94002 (URN)
Presentation
2012-05-25, Seminarierummet, Alfvénlaboratoriet, Teknikringen 31, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120504Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2012-05-04 Last updated: 2012-05-07Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and Experimental Studies of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Experimental Studies of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

HiPIMS, high power impulse magnetron sputtering, is a promising technology that has attracted a lot of attention, ever since it was introduced in 1999. A time-dependent plasma discharge model has been developed for the ionization region (IRM) in HiPIMS discharges. As a flexible modeling tool, it can be used to explore the temporal variations of the ionized fractions of the working gas and the sputtered vapor, the electron density and temperature, the gas rarefaction and refill processes, the heating mechanisms, and the self-sputtering process etc.. The model development has proceeded in steps. A basic version IRM I is fitted to the experimental data from a HiPIMS discharge with 100 μs long pulses and an aluminum target (Paper I). A close fit to the experimental current waveform, and values of density, temperature, gas rarefaction, as well as the degree of ionization shows the general validity of the model. An improved version, IRM II is first used for an investigation of reasons for deposition rate loss in the same discharge (Paper II). This work contains a preliminary analysis of the potential distribution and its evolution as well as the possibility of a high deposition rate window to optimize the HiPIMS discharge. IRM II is then fitted to another HiPIMS discharge with 400 μs long pulses and an aluminum target and used to investigate gas rarefaction, degree of ionization, degree of self-sputtering, and the loss in deposition rate (Paper III). The most complete version, IRM III is also applied to these 400 μs long pulse discharges but in a larger power density range, from the pulsed dcMS range 0.026 kW/up to 3.6 kW/where gas rarefaction and self-sputtering are important processes. It is in Paper IV used to study the Ohmic heating mechanism in the bulk plasma, couple to the potential distribution in the ionization region, and compare the efficiencies of different mechanisms for electron heating and their resulting relative contributions to ionization. Then, in Paper V, the particle balance and discharge characteristics on the road to self-sputtering are studied. We find that a transition to a discharge mode where self-sputtering dominates always happens early, typically one third into the rising flank of an initial current peak. It is not driven by process gas rarefaction, instead gas rarefaction develops when the discharge already is in the self-sputtering regime. The degree of self-sputtering increases with power: at low powers mainly due to an increasing probability of ionization of the sputtered material, and at high powers mainly due to an increasing self-sputter yield in the sheath.

Besides this IRM modeling, the transport of charged particles has been investigated byiv measuring current distributions in HiPIMS discharges with 200 μs long pulses and a copper target (Paper VI). A description, based on three different types of current systems during the ignition, transition and steady state phase, is used to analyze the evolution of the current density distribution in the pulsed plasma. The internal current density ratio (Hall current density divided by discharge current density) is a key transport parameter. It is reported how it varies with space and time, governing the cross-B resistivity and the mobility of the charged particles. From the current ratio, the electron cross-B (Pedersen) conductivity can be obtained and used as essential input when modeling the axial electric field that was the subject of Papers II and IV, and which governs the back-attraction of ions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xiii, 75 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:029
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126264 (URN)978-91-7501-819-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-09-18, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130830

Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2013-11-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Lundin, Daniel

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Brenning, NilsHuo, ChunqingLundin, DanielRaadu, Michael A.
By organisation
Space and Plasma Physics
In the same journal
Plasma sources science & technology (Print)
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 113 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf