MtDNA analysis confirms early Pre‐Colombian origins of Native Americandogs
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Dogs were present in Pre‐Columbian America, presumably brought to the New World by early human migrants of Asian origin. However, the extent to which historical Arctic, North and South American breeds, e.g. the Alaskan Malamute, Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Xoloitzcuintli, Chihuahua and Perro Sín Pelo del Peru, are descendants of these original dogs or were replaced by European dogs remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis to trace the origin of their mitochondrial (mt) DNA lineages, these breeds were analysed for 582 bp of the mtDNA control region and compared to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published Pre‐Columbian sequences. Evidence for a Pre‐Columbian origin was found for all putative American breeds based on the detection of haplotypes phylogenetically distinct from European haplotypes, exclusive to America, shared only with East Asia, or identical to ancient American sequences. Identical rare haplotypes in ancient and modern samples showed geographic continuity over time in Mexico (Chihuahua) and Alaska (Alaskan Malamute). A European origin for at most 15% of the female lineages was indicated, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. We also analysed free‐ranging dogs from the USA and South America. In agreement with a previous study, free ranging dogs in general showed little pre‐Columbian ancestry. However, for several populations an appreciable proportion of indigenous ancestry was indicated. Specifically, we provide the first DNA‐based evidence for an ancient Asian origin of the Carolina Dog, a dingo‐like free‐ranging population in the USA. Numerous dogs were probably brought from Asia, since totally 13 mtDNA haplotypes among extant and ancient American dogs were distinct from haploypes found in Europe.
Dog, mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA, America, Pre‐Columbian
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-94424OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-94424DiVA: diva2:525854
QS 20122012-05-092012-05-092012-05-10Bibliographically approved