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Hermetic integration of liquids using high-speed stud bump bonding for cavity sealing at the wafer level
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3452-6361
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0525-8647
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9552-4234
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 4, 045021- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports a novel room-temperature hermetic liquid sealing process where the access ports of liquid-filled cavities are sealed with wire-bonded stud bumps. This process enables liquids to be integrated at the fabrication stage. Evaluation cavities were manufactured and used to investigate the mechanical and hermetic properties of the seals. Measurements on the successfully sealed structures show a helium leak rate of better than 10 (10) mbarL s (1), in addition to a zero liquid loss over two months during storage near boiling temperature. The bond strength of the plugs was similar to standard wire bonds on flat surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 22, no 4, 045021- p.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95264DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/22/4/045021ISI: 000303196900021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-95264DiVA: diva2:527511
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 267528
Note
QC 20120521Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Integration and Fabrication Techniques for 3D Micro- and Nanodevices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration and Fabrication Techniques for 3D Micro- and Nanodevices
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of micro and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) with entirely new or improved functionalities is typically based on novel or improved designs, materials and fabrication methods. However, today’s micro- and nano-fabrication is restrained by manufacturing paradigms that have been established by the integrated circuit (IC) industry over the past few decades. The exclusive use of IC manufacturing technologies leads to limited material choices, limited design flexibility and consequently to sub-optimal MEMS and NEMS devices. The work presented in this thesis breaks new ground with a multitude of novel approaches for the integration of non-standard materials that enable the fabrication of 3D micro and nanoelectromechanical systems. The objective of this thesis is to highlight methods that make use of non-standard materials with superior characteristics or methods that use standard materials and fabrication techniques in a novel context. The overall goal is to propose suitable and cost-efficient fabrication and integration methods, which can easily be made available to the industry.

The first part of the thesis deals with the integration of bulk wire materials. A novel approach for the integration of at least partly ferromagnetic bulk wire materials has been implemented for the fabrication of high aspect ratio through silicon vias. Standard wire bonding technology, a very mature back-end technology, has been adapted for yet another through silicon via fabrication method and applications including liquid and vacuum packaging as well as microactuators based on shape memory alloy wires. As this thesis reveals, wire bonding, as a versatile and highly efficient technology, can be utilized for applications far beyond traditional interconnections in electronics packaging.

The second part presents two approaches for the 3D heterogeneous integration based on layer transfer. Highly efficient monocrystalline silicon/ germanium is integrated on wafer-level for the fabrication of uncooled thermal image sensors and monolayer-graphene is integrated on chip-level for the use in diaphragm-based pressure sensors.

The last part introduces a novel additive fabrication method for layer-bylayer printing of 3D silicon micro- and nano-structures. This method combines existing technologies, including focused ion beam implantation and chemical vapor deposition of silicon, in order to establish a high-resolution fabrication process that is related to popular 3D printing techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xv, 91 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:001
Keyword
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, Nanoelectromechanical systems, NEMS, silicon, wafer-level, chip-level, through silicon via, TSV, packaging, 3D packaging, vacuum packaging, liquid encapsulation, integration, heterogeneous integration, wafer bonding, microactuators, shape memory alloy, SMA, wire bonding, magnetic assembly, self-assembly, 3D, 3D printing, focused ion beam, FIB
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107125 (URN)978-91-7501-583-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-01-18, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121207

Available from: 2012-12-07 Created: 2012-12-06 Last updated: 2016-08-11Bibliographically approved
2. Wafer-scale Vacuum and Liquid Packaging Concepts for an Optical Thin-film Gas Sensor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wafer-scale Vacuum and Liquid Packaging Concepts for an Optical Thin-film Gas Sensor
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis treats the development of packaging and integration methods for the cost-efficient encapsulation and packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. The packaging of MEMS devices is often more costly than the device itself, partly because the packaging can be crucial for the performance of the device. For devices which contain liquids or needs to be enclosed in a vacuum, the packaging can account for up to 80% of the total cost of the device.

The first part of this thesis presents the integration scheme for an optical dye thin film NO2-gas sensor, designed using cost-efficient implementations of wafer-scale methods. This work includes design and fabrication of photonic subcomponents in addition to the main effort of integration and packaging of the dye-film. A specific proof of concept target was for NO2 monitoring in a car tunnel.

The second part of this thesis deals with the wafer-scale packaging methods developed for the sensing device. The developed packaging method, based on low-temperature plastic deformation of gold sealing structures, is further demonstrated as a generic method for other hermetic liquid and vacuum packaging applications. In the developed packaging methods, the mechanically squeezed gold sealing material is both electroplated microstruc- tures and wire bonded stud bumps. The electroplated rings act like a more hermetic version of rubber sealing rings while compressed in conjunction with a cavity forming wafer bonding process. The stud bump sealing processes is on the other hand applied on completed cavities with narrow access ports, to seal either a vacuum or liquid inside the cavities at room temperature. Additionally, the resulting hermeticity of primarily the vacuum sealing methods is thoroughly investigated.

Two of the sealing methods presented require permanent mechanical fixation in order to complete the packaging process. Two solutions to this problem are presented in this thesis. First, a more traditional wafer bonding method using tin-soldering is demonstrated. Second, a novel full-wafer epoxy underfill-process using a microfluidic distribution network is demonstrated using a room temperature process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. ix, 65 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:010
Keyword
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, Nanoelectromechanical systems, NEMS, silicon, wafer-level, packaging, vacuum packaging, liquid encapsulation, integration, wire bonding, grating coupler, waveguide, Fabry-Perot resonator
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119839 (URN)978-91-7501-676-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-19, Q2, Osquldas Väg 10, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130325

Available from: 2013-03-25 Created: 2013-03-24 Last updated: 2013-03-25Bibliographically approved

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Fischer, Andreas C.Niklaus, FrankStemme, Göran

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