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Modelling of muscular force induced by non-isometric contraction
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics. (Biomechanics)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main objective of the study was to investigate and simulate skeletal muscleforce production during and after isometric contractions, active muscle lengtheningand active muscle shortening. The motivation behind this work was to improve thedominant model of muscle force generation based on the theories of Hill from 1938. Effects of residual force enhancement and force depression were observed after concentric and eccentric contractions, and also during stretch-shortening cycles. It wasshown that this force modification is not related to lengthening/shortening velocity, butinstead the steady-state force after non-isometric contractions can be well describedby an initial isometric force to which a modification is added. The modification isevaluated from the mechanical work performed by and on the muscle during lengthvariations. The time constants calculated for isometric force redevelopment appearedto be in certain relations with those for initial isometric force development, an observation which extended our basis for muscle modelling.

A macroscopic muscular model consisting of a contractile element, and paralleland series elastic elements was supplemented with a history component and adoptedfor mouse soleus muscle experiments. The parameters from the experiment analysis, particularly the force modification after non-isometric contractions and the timeconstants, were reproduced by the simulations. In a step towards a general implementation, the history modification was introduced in the muscluloskeletal model ofOpenSim software, which was then used for simulations of full body movements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , x, 48 p.
Series
Trita-MEK, ISSN 0348-467X ; 2012:03
Keyword [en]
Skeletal muscle, Muscular force, Concentric contractions, Eccentric con- tractions, History effect, Force modification, Muscle model, Musculoskeletal model
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95418ISBN: 978-91-7501-399-8 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-95418DiVA: diva2:528260
Public defence
2012-05-31, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120525Available from: 2012-05-25 Created: 2012-05-24 Last updated: 2012-05-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Muscular force production after concentric contraction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Muscular force production after concentric contraction
2008 (English)In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 41, no 11, 2422-2429 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The steady-state force following active shortening does not reach the maximum isometric force associated with the final length. Isolated extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles from mice (NMRI strain) were used to investigate the force produced by a muscle, and some parameters hypothetically influencing this shortening-induced force depression. The muscles were pre-stimulated at fixed length, shortened and then held isometrically to give maximum post-shortening forces, before de-stimulation. The shortening magnitude was 0.18. 0.36 or 0.72 mm (about 2-7% of optimal length), time of shortening was chosen as 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 s, and final length as +0.72. 0 and -0.72mm, related to optimal length. The mechanical work during active shortening was evaluated by integrating the product of force and shortening velocity over the shortening period. The results show a positive correlation between the force depression and the mechanical work. whereas the force depression was not correlated to the velocity of shortening. Depression of the passive force component was also observed following all stimulations. Experiments show that the fully stimulated redevelopment of isometric force following concentric contraction follows a time function similar to the creation of force when isometric muscle is initially stimulated. The conclusion is that the isometric force development after active shortening can be well described by an asymptotic force which is decided by the produced work, and the initial isometric time constant.

Keyword
mouse muscles, concentric contractions, force depression, history, dependence, muscular work, cat soleus muscle, skeletal-muscle, length relationship, isometric, force, descending-limb, frog-muscle, depression, enhancement, stretch, relaxation
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17816 (URN)10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.05.019 (DOI)000259129000012 ()2-s2.0-48149107349 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Mechanical work as predictor of force enhancement and force depression
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical work as predictor of force enhancement and force depression
2009 (English)In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 42, no 11, 1628-1634 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The steady-state force following active muscle shortening or stretch differs from the maximum isometric force associated with the final length. This phenomenon proves that the isometric force production is not only dependent on current muscle length and length time derivative, but depends on the preceding contraction history. Isolated extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles from mice (NMRI strain) were used to investigate the force produced by a muscle, and some parameters hypothetically influencing this history-dependent force modification. The muscles were pre-stimulated at a fixed length, then different stretch/shortening episodes were introduced, whereafter changes of the active force were recorded while the muscles were held isometrically to approach a steady-state force before de-stimulation. The mechanical work during active stretch and shortening was evaluated by integrating the product of force and ramp velocity over the length-varying period. The results show a negative linear correlation between the force modification and the mechanical work produced on or by the muscle, continuous between shortening and stretch. A corresponding modification of the passive force component following each stimulation was also observed. The conclusion is that the isometric force attained after stretch or shortening is well described by an asymptotic force which is determined by the mechanical work.

Keyword
Mouse skeletal muscles, Transient-length contractions, Stretch-shortening cycle, Force depression, Force enhancement, History, dependence, Muscular work, frog-muscle fibers, cat soleus muscle, skeletal-muscle, length, relationship, isometric force, descending-limb, stretch, tension, simulations, contraction
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18709 (URN)10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.04.028 (DOI)000269269800009 ()19486981 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-67651155777 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Impaired Myofibrillar Function in the Soleus Muscle of Mice With Collagen-Induced Arthritis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired Myofibrillar Function in the Soleus Muscle of Mice With Collagen-Induced Arthritis
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 60, no 11, 3280-3289 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. Progressive muscle weakness is a common feature in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known about whether the intrinsic contractile properties of muscle fibers are affected in RA. This study was undertaken to investigate muscle contractility and the myoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) in the soleus, a major postural muscle, in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. Muscle contractility and [Ca2+](i) were assessed in whole muscle and intact single-fiber preparations, respectively. The underlying mechanisms of contractile dysfunction were assessed by investigating redox modifications using Western blotting and antibodies against nitric oxide synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA), and S-nitrosocysteine (SNO-Cys). Results. The tetanic force per cross-sectional area was markedly decreased in the soleus muscle of mice with CIA, and the change was not due to a decrease in the amplitude of [Ca2+](i) transients. The reduction in force production was accompanied by slowing of the twitch contraction and relaxation and a decrease in the maximum shortening velocity. Immunoblot analyses showed a marked increase in neuronal NOS expression but not in inducible or endothelial NOS expression, which, together with the observed decrease in SOD2 expression, favors peroxynitrite formation. These changes were accompanied by increased 3-NT, carbonyl, and MDA adducts content in myofibrillar proteins from the muscles of mice with CIA. Moreover, there was a significant increase in SNO-Cys content in myosin heavy-chain and troponin I myofibrillar proteins from the soleus muscle of mice with CIA. Conclusion. These findings show impaired contractile function in the soleus muscle of mice with CIA and suggest that this abnormality is due to peroxynitrite-induced modifications in myofibrillar proteins.

National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33118 (URN)10.1002/art.24907 (DOI)000271781400017 ()19877058 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70350555329 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note
QC 20110428Available from: 2011-04-28 Created: 2011-04-28 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. History effect and timing of force production introduced in a skeletal muscle model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>History effect and timing of force production introduced in a skeletal muscle model
2012 (English)In: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, ISSN 1617-7959, E-ISSN 1617-7940, Vol. 11, no 7, 947-957 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Skeletal muscle modelling requires a detailed description of muscular force production. We have performed a series of experiments on mouse skeletal muscles to give a basis for an improved description of the muscular force production. Our previous work introduced a force modification in isometric phases, which was based on the work performed by or on the muscle during transient-length-varying contractions. Here, state-space diagrams were used to investigate the timing aspects of the force production. These show a dominant exponential nature of the force development in isometric phases of the contractions, reached after a non-exponential phase, assumed as an activation or deactivation stage and not further analysed here. The time constants of the exponential functions describing isometric force redevelopment after length variations appear to be related to the one for an initial isometric contraction, but depending on the previous history. The timing of force production calculated from the state-space diagrams was in agreement with the generally accepted muscle properties, thereby demonstrating the reliability of the method. A macroscopic muscular model consisting of a contractile element, parallel and series elastic elements was developed. The parameters from the experiment analysis, particularly the force modification after non-isometric contractions and the time constants, were reproduced by the simulations. The relationship between time constants introduced in a mechanistic model and the measured macroscale timings is discussed.

Keyword
Muscular force, Length variations, State-space diagrams, Time constant, Muscle model, Hill type, Force modification
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-70199 (URN)10.1007/s10237-011-0364-5 (DOI)000307511500002 ()2-s2.0-84865642465 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20120914

Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Force enhancement and force depression in a modified muscle model used for muscle activation prediction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Force enhancement and force depression in a modified muscle model used for muscle activation prediction
2013 (English)In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, no 4, 759-765 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article introduces history-dependent effects in a skeletal muscle model applied to dynamic simulations of musculoskeletal system motion. Force depression and force enhancement induced by active muscle shortening and lengthening, respectively, represent muscle history effects. A muscle model depending on the preceding contractile events together with the current parameters was developed for OpenSim software, and applied in simulations of standing heel-raise and squat movements. Muscle activations were computed using joint kinematics and ground reaction forces recorded from the motion capture of seven individuals. In the muscle-actuated simulations, a modification was applied to the computed activation, and was compared to the measured electromyography data. For the studied movements, the history gives a small but visible effect to the muscular force trace, but some parameter values must be identified before the exact magnitude can be analysed. The muscle model modification improves the existing muscle models and gives a more accurate description of underlying forces and activations in musculoskeletal system movement simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Muscle model, Force depression, Force enhancement, Activation modification, Musculoskeletal system, Heel-raise, Squat, Electromyography
National Category
Neurosciences Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95446 (URN)10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.02.008 (DOI)000321107900002 ()2-s2.0-84879554013 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20130812. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-05-25 Created: 2012-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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