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Force enhancement and force depression in a modified muscle model used for muscle activation prediction
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5819-4544
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5417-5939
2013 (English)In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, no 4, 759-765 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article introduces history-dependent effects in a skeletal muscle model applied to dynamic simulations of musculoskeletal system motion. Force depression and force enhancement induced by active muscle shortening and lengthening, respectively, represent muscle history effects. A muscle model depending on the preceding contractile events together with the current parameters was developed for OpenSim software, and applied in simulations of standing heel-raise and squat movements. Muscle activations were computed using joint kinematics and ground reaction forces recorded from the motion capture of seven individuals. In the muscle-actuated simulations, a modification was applied to the computed activation, and was compared to the measured electromyography data. For the studied movements, the history gives a small but visible effect to the muscular force trace, but some parameter values must be identified before the exact magnitude can be analysed. The muscle model modification improves the existing muscle models and gives a more accurate description of underlying forces and activations in musculoskeletal system movement simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 23, no 4, 759-765 p.
Keyword [en]
Muscle model, Force depression, Force enhancement, Activation modification, Musculoskeletal system, Heel-raise, Squat, Electromyography
National Category
Neurosciences Physiology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95446DOI: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.02.008ISI: 000321107900002ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84879554013OAI: diva2:528366
Swedish Research Council

QC 20130812. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-05-25 Created: 2012-05-25 Last updated: 2013-08-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modelling of muscular force induced by non-isometric contraction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of muscular force induced by non-isometric contraction
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main objective of the study was to investigate and simulate skeletal muscleforce production during and after isometric contractions, active muscle lengtheningand active muscle shortening. The motivation behind this work was to improve thedominant model of muscle force generation based on the theories of Hill from 1938. Effects of residual force enhancement and force depression were observed after concentric and eccentric contractions, and also during stretch-shortening cycles. It wasshown that this force modification is not related to lengthening/shortening velocity, butinstead the steady-state force after non-isometric contractions can be well describedby an initial isometric force to which a modification is added. The modification isevaluated from the mechanical work performed by and on the muscle during lengthvariations. The time constants calculated for isometric force redevelopment appearedto be in certain relations with those for initial isometric force development, an observation which extended our basis for muscle modelling.

A macroscopic muscular model consisting of a contractile element, and paralleland series elastic elements was supplemented with a history component and adoptedfor mouse soleus muscle experiments. The parameters from the experiment analysis, particularly the force modification after non-isometric contractions and the timeconstants, were reproduced by the simulations. In a step towards a general implementation, the history modification was introduced in the muscluloskeletal model ofOpenSim software, which was then used for simulations of full body movements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. x, 48 p.
Trita-MEK, ISSN 0348-467X ; 2012:03
Skeletal muscle, Muscular force, Concentric contractions, Eccentric con- tractions, History effect, Force modification, Muscle model, Musculoskeletal model
National Category
Applied Mechanics
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95418 (URN)978-91-7501-399-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-05-31, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
QC 20120525Available from: 2012-05-25 Created: 2012-05-24 Last updated: 2012-05-25Bibliographically approved

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Kosterina, NataliaWang, RuoliEriksson, AndersGutierrez Farewik, Lanie
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