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Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving energy systems of existing chemical pulp mills by integrating gasification technology.

The present study investigates bio-fuel alternatives from the dry black liquor gasification (BLG) system with direct causticization and direct methane production from the catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system. The studied systems are compared with bio-fuel alternatives from the Chemrec BLG system and the improvements in the energy systems of the pulp mill are analyzed. The results are used to identify the efficient route based on system performance indicators e.g. material and energy balances to compare BLG systems and the conventional recovery boiler system, potential biofuel production together with biomass to biofuel conversion efficiency, energy ratios, potential CO2 mitigation combining on-site CO2 reduction using CO2 capture and potential CO2 offsets from biofuel use, and potential motor fuel replacement.

The results showed that the dry BLG system for synthetic natural gas (SNG) production offers better integration opportunities with the chemical pulp mill in terms of overall material and energy balances. The biofuel production and conversion efficiency are higher in the CHG system than other studied configurations but at a cost of larger biomass import. The dry BLG system for SNG production achieved high biomass to biofuel efficiency and considerable biofuel production. The energy ratio is significant in the dry BLG (SNG) system with less biomass demand and considerable net steam production in the BLG island. The elimination of the lime kiln in the dry BLG systems resulted in reduced consequences of incremental biomass import and associated CO2 emissions. Hydrogen production in the dry BLG system showed the highest combined CO2 mitigation potential i.e. on-site CO2 capture potential and CO2 offset from biofuel replacing fossil fuel. The results also showed that the motor fuel replacement potential with SNG as compressed natural gas (CNG) replacing gasoline in the transport sector is significantly high in countries with large pulp industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , x, 73 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2012:16
Keyword [en]
Bio-refinery, Biomass, Black liquor gasification, Bio-fuel, Pulp mill, CO2, Conversion efficiency, Integration, Synthesis gas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95524ISBN: 978-91-7501-319-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-95524DiVA: diva2:528787
Public defence
2012-06-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120528Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills
2010 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 3, 937-944 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DIME) and methane (CH4) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH4 production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH4 production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

Keyword
Black liquor gasification, Biofuels, Bioenergy, Dimethyl ether (DME), Methane, hydrogen-production, gas-turbines, co2 capture, paper-mills, energy, biomass, industry, reductions, emission, storage
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18946 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.086 (DOI)000271664600015 ()2-s2.0-70450155383 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review
2010 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 21, 8001-8015 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keyword
Bio-refinery, Black liquor gasification, Pulp and paper mills, Synthesis gas
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27184 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.013 (DOI)000280570900001 ()2-s2.0-77954564046 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101208Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no 1, 24-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Bio-fuel, Bio-refinery, Black liquor gasification, Methanol, Pulp mill
National Category
Chemical Engineering Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27185 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.074 (DOI)000297426100005 ()2-s2.0-80055032072 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101208, QC 20120109Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production at pulp mills from a circulating fluidized bed black liquor gasification process with direct causticization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production at pulp mills from a circulating fluidized bed black liquor gasification process with direct causticization
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2010, Åbo Akademi University Press, 2010, Vol. 2, 83-91 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from black liquor gasification (BLG) replacing conventional recovery cycle at chemical pulp mills is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions and replace fossil natural gas. This paper evaluates the potential of SNG production from a circulating fluidized bed BLG process with direct causticization by investigating synthesis gas composition, purity requirements for SNG and process integration with the reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The objective of this study is to estimate the integrated process efficiency from black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG and to quantify the differences in overall process efficiencies of various bio-refinery options. The models include a BLG Island including BL gasifier, synthesis gas cooling and cleaning unit, methanation with SNG upgrading and a power boiler. The result indicates a large potential of SNG production from BL but at a cost of additional biomass import to compensate energy deficit in terms of BL conversion to SNG. In addition, the study shows a significant CO2 abatement when CO2 capture is carried out in SNG upgrading and also reducing CO2 emissions when SNG potentially replaces fossil natural gas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo Akademi University Press, 2010
Keyword
black liquor gasification, bio-fuel, methanol, pulp mill, bio-refinery
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27186 (URN)2-s2.0-84896116171 (Scopus ID)978-145630311-2 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, 14 June 2010 through 17 June 2010
Note

QC 20101208

Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2015-04-22Bibliographically approved
5. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, 49-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO2 abatement i.e. both possible CO2 capture and CO2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

Keyword
Black liquor gasification, Synthetic natural gas, Pulp mill, CO2 emissions, Direct causticization
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50179 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.11.082 (DOI)000307196000007 ()2-s2.0-84862325326 (Scopus ID)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), Perugia, Italy, May 16-18, 2011
Note

QC 20121008

Available from: 2011-12-02 Created: 2011-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
6. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO2 capture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO2 capture
2012 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 110, 637-644 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO2 abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO2 capture and CO2 offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Bio-fuel, Black liquor gasification, Direct causticization, Hydrogen, Pulp mill
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50180 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.070 (DOI)000305852700090 ()2-s2.0-84858276158 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120627Available from: 2011-12-02 Created: 2011-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. Integrated Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Oxygen Blown Dry Black Liquor Gasification Process with Direct Causticization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Oxygen Blown Dry Black Liquor Gasification Process with Direct Causticization
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50178 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2011. Perugia, Italy. May 16-18 2011
Note
QC 20111206Available from: 2011-12-02 Created: 2011-12-02 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved
8. Sustainability Aspects of Transport Bio-fuels from Black liquor gasification – a System Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability Aspects of Transport Bio-fuels from Black liquor gasification – a System Analysis
2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-85452 (URN)
Note
QS 2012Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
9. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthesis gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthesis gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems
2012 (English)In: International Conference on Applied Energy, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-85460 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy
Note
QC 20120528Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved

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