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High Frequency Model of Electrified Railway Propulsion System for EMC Analysis
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A model of the electrified railway propulsion system working in a wide frequency range is studied in this thesis. The high frequency modeling is the first stage to study and predict the Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems in the electrified railway propulsion system, which are safety and reliability issues of high concern. Modeling methods and models for the line converter, motor power supply module, and the traction motor are developed. These models can work individually or be combined together to simulate the main part of the electrified railway propulsion system.

A two level pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled rectifier used in propulsion system is built in Simulink. It provides different values of DC voltage for DC-link according to design requirements. Time domain line current as well as frequency domain spectra is studied. Harmonic value based on variation in time is given to better understand the behavior of the rectifier. High value of harmonics is found during starting time. The steady-state harmonics are also demonstrated.

For the motor power supply module modeling, multitransmission line theory is used to model the cable used to connect the inverter and motor. A decoupling method to solve N multiconductor transmission lines into N single transmission lines in PSpice is developed and verified. Through simulation, the oscillation and overvoltage in the cable according to different layouts and length of cable are studied. The electromagnetic (EM) noise is dependent on the length of cables. A fourth grounded cable with optimized layout is introduced to reduce the oscillation on the line. By using this method, for the cable layout considered, the magnitude of the oscillation is reduced significantly from 19.48 V at 5.245 MHz to 2.1 V at 4.609 MHz for the 14 meter cable configuration.

In order to improve accuracy of the modeling of propulsion system, a method to represent a traction motor with high accuracy in a wide frequency range in PSpice is presented. This model is based on vector fitting and synthesis of rational function in PSpice by equivalent circuits. It provides a new concept to model the traction motor for EM investigation compared with conventional circuit models. The simulated data can approach the measured data with extremely small error when high order of circuit is used. Verification of this method was done on a 200 kW induction motor. The relative simplicity of this method makes it a good candidate for analysis of industrialized traction motors.

Fast transients induced by reverse-recovery of diodes in pre-charger or short circuit in power supplies are also studied, and it is possible to include them in the proposed model for propulsion system to study their impacts on the system from the EMC point of view. The fast transients with high magnitude are hazardous to the safe operation of the train. A test setup is proposed to study the fast transients caused by output diodes in the pre-charger. In the test setup, one efficient method to eliminate the contact bounce in the IGBT control circuit is also proposed. The voltage responses of the diode may be two or more times higher than the reverse bias voltage when nonlinear behavior of diode happens. A snubber, which has much bigger capacitor than conventional ones, is applied to solve the problem. The effect and robust operation of this snubber is experimentally verified. The overshoot voltage with snubber is reduced to less than 1.2 kV, which is about 60% of that without snubber, when the reverse bias is 1 kV.

Short circuit may also lead to fast transient in the traction system. As there are numerous DC-DC converters in the propulsion system, especially in the auxiliary system, the importance of equipping short circuit protection circuit in power supplies is obvious. A test setup is proposed to study the fast transient induced by short circuit. An effective circuit, which has been experimentally verified, is proposed to reduce the transient current when short circuit occurs. As shown in the example converter, the peak value of the transient current resulting from short circuit is reduced to one fifth of that without protection circuit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , 83 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146
Keyword [en]
Electromagnetic compatibility, railway, propulsion system, multitransmission line, ac motor modeling, vector fitting, fast transient
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-96230ISBN: 978-91-7501-376-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-96230DiVA: diva2:529763
Public defence
2012-06-11, sal F3, Lindstedtsv. 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120604Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-05-31 Last updated: 2012-06-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. PSpice Modeling of Electrified Railway Propulsion Drive Rectifiers for Harmonic Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PSpice Modeling of Electrified Railway Propulsion Drive Rectifiers for Harmonic Analysis
2009 (English)In: ITST: 2009 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS TELECOMMUNICATIONS, New York: IEEE , 2009, 113-116 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A method to construct the electrified railway propulsion drive rectifier in PSpice for EMC assessment is developed. The working mechanisms of a three level NPC PWM rectifier and its logical signal generator are elaborated. Besides that, the convergence problem of PSpice is explained and the proper parametric settings for simulation in this paper are given. At last, the noise spectra for two different loads are compared and the causes for this difference are discussed as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2009
Keyword
three level PWM rectifier, PSpice, Propulsion drive, harmonic analysis
National Category
Telecommunications Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29681 (URN)000279343400021 ()2-s2.0-77950490954 (Scopus ID)
Conference
9th International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems Telecommunications
Note
QC 20110218Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-11 Last updated: 2012-06-04Bibliographically approved
2. Optimal cable assembly for reducing conducted electromagnetic interference in the traction system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal cable assembly for reducing conducted electromagnetic interference in the traction system
2012 (English)In: IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, ISSN 2042-9738, Vol. 2, no 1, 29-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present work deals with a method of modelling a traction system in PSpice with the consideration for optimal cable arrangements for reducing conducted electromagnetic interference. Multiconductor transmission line (MTL) theory is adopted to model the cable which connects the pulse-width modulation (PWM) source inverter and the motor. A simple decoupling transformation method is proposed and used to transform the MTL into several single transmission line, which can be easily modelled in PSpice. The PWM controlled voltage source and induction motor are also included in this model. Thus, the full model for a traction system is realised in PSpice. From system simulation, the voltage oscillation in the cable is observed and the conducted electromagnetic noise in the system is studied. The relationship between the frequency of the noise and the length of feeding cables are also demonstrated in this work. In order to mitigate the high-frequency noise, a cable system with a fourth parallel earth conductor is proposed and the noise level is indeed reduced by this technique. This modelling procedure for traction system can be used for any specific application like the electrified railway traction system.

National Category
Telecommunications Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31663 (URN)10.1049/iet-est.2011.0024 (DOI)2-s2.0-84857338457 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20110321

Updated from submitted to published, 20120315. Previous title: Optimal cable assembly for reducing conducted electromagnetic

Available from: 2011-03-21 Created: 2011-03-21 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
3. Modeling an AC Motor with High Accuracy in a Wide Frequency Range
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling an AC Motor with High Accuracy in a Wide Frequency Range
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Telecommunications Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-96392 (URN)
Note
QS 2012Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-06-04 Last updated: 2012-06-04Bibliographically approved
4. Overshoot problem of the output diode used in the pre-charger for the railway propulsion system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overshoot problem of the output diode used in the pre-charger for the railway propulsion system
2012 (English)In: IET Power Electronics, ISSN 1755-4535, E-ISSN 1755-4543, Vol. 5, no 7, 991-997 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pre-charger is a specific DC-DC converter application in the railway propulsion system. This study demonstrates the possible causes for output diode failures in the pre-charger. Overshoot voltage during diode reverse-recovery is a main reason for such failure. A test set-up is proposed to study the influence of reverse bias on the overshoot voltage. The method to mitigate the contact bounce in the control circuit, in the test set-up, is also introduced. The relationship between the overshoot and reverse bias is studied by means of applying different reverse biases. The parasitic capacitance and reverse-recovery characteristic of the diode is changed by the exceeding reverse bias. Reverse-recovery time is reduced when the reverse voltage is beyond a critical level. To overcome the overshoot problem, a snubber is applied, and experimentally verified. Overvoltage is dramatically reduced by applying this snubber. Current and voltage waveforms in different branches are recorded so as to give a better understanding of the working mechanism of the snubber.

Keyword
DC-DC converters, Diodes, Propulsion, Railroads, Recovery, Electromagnetic Compatibility
National Category
Telecommunications Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-96395 (URN)10.1049/iet-pel.2011.0495 (DOI)000311026200008 ()2-s2.0-84867813697 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150625. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Cost-effective method for protecting MOSFET against the short circuit fault in power converters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-effective method for protecting MOSFET against the short circuit fault in power converters
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Telecommunications Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-96396 (URN)
Note
QS 2012Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-06-04 Last updated: 2012-06-04Bibliographically approved

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