Balansering av en storskalig vindkraftsutbyggnad i Sverige med hjälp av den svenska vattenkraften
Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
This master thesis is a study of the Swedish hydropower capacity to balance wind power. The Swedish government has decided that it should be possible to produce 30 TWh from wind power in the year 2020. The Swedish municipalities have to have plans for wind power plants with total yearly generation of 30 TWh. Wind power is an variable energy source that needs to be balanced by other energy sources. In Sweden the Swedish hydropower can be used for balancing a large scale introduction of wind power. The hydropower balancing capacity is examined in a model with 256 hydropower plants with a total installed capacity of 15 640 MW. The Swedish hydropower production is simulated for a total of twelve weeks from the year 2009. The model has a resolution of one hour and considers the existing water permits and is an extension of the one used in the report Elforsk 09:88 Balancing of wind power with hydropower in northern Sweden. Transmission capacity constraints between Sweden and the countries Sweden is connected to and in between the four price areas in Sweden are included. Consumption of electricity, other electricity generation and wind power are in the form of time series. In practice, the hydro power’s ability to follow given variable net load is simulated. Different levels of installed wind power, wind and available export capacity are examined. An introduction of 4000 MW, 8000 MW and 12 000 MW wind power are simulated. The key finding is that the spillage of water does not increase with increased amount of wind power. Spillage occurs when too much electricity is generated. The spillage can be avoided with modified seasonal planning. There is no seasonal planning in the model since the model only simulates over one week. In the model export of electricity is assumed to be possible, a large wind power generation implicates a low electricity price. A wind power plant owner always wants to sell his or her generation no matter what electricity price is. Export from Sweden is assumed possible with an amount corresponding to available transmission capacity to other countries.
A large scale introduction of wind power will increase Sweden’s export of electricity. Norway also has plans to build more wind power and Finland is building new nuclear power plants. There might be problems to find use for all electricity generated. On the continent the prices and demand for electricity are higher. The Polish and German electric grids are weak and can’t receive large amounts of electricity. If Germany and Poland can’t receive electricity due to internal bottlenecks, the System operators are decreasing the capacity on the connections to Sweden. In North Germany there is a lot of wind power that is a contributing factor, when the power generation is high., In these situations Germany can receive less electricity from Sweden.
Electric district heating and maybe electric vehicles can in the future consume an oversupply of electricity. A large scale introduction of electric vehicles can increase the Swedish electricity consumption by 9 TWh. Alternatives to balancing with conventional hydropower are also briefly discussed. Un‐natural and heavily variable flows can affect animals and plants in a negative way. Among alternatives are pumped ‐storage hydro, gas turbines, heat power plants on and smart grids in this case of flexible load.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 82 p.
EES Examensarbete / Master Thesis, XR-EE-ES 2012:007
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98672OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-98672DiVA: diva2:538474
Master of Science in Engineering - Industrial Engineering and Management
Söder, Lennart, Professor