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ALD high-k layer grating couplers for single and double slot on-chip SOI photonics
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6459-749X
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
2012 (English)In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 74, 58-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

State of the art grating couplers for horizontal single and double slot waveguides are presented; in these devices the input signal is transmitted from a single mode optical fiber to silicon on insulator slot waveguide. In the waveguides, atomic layer deposited (ALD) high-k dielectrics form the low refractive index slot. It is demonstrated that a fully etched design combined with precision of ALD result in highly reproducible devices with theoretical efficiency variations less than 1%. Devices have a peak calculated coupling efficiency of 24% at 1.55 mu m. In order to achieve an optimal design, optical properties of high-k films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Measured refractive indices show variations from reference values, originated from film variation in densities. Chips with a test slot material are fabricated and the optical efficiency of the couplers is characterized. The maximum measured coupling efficiency of the couplers is 18.5%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 74, 58-63 p.
Keyword [en]
Integrated photonics, Grating couplers, High-k thin films, Slot waveguides, Fabrication and characterization
National Category
Physical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-99216DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2012.04.012ISI: 000305728600011ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84861899154OAI: diva2:541999

QC 20120727

Available from: 2012-07-27 Created: 2012-07-23 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Horizontal Slot Waveguides for Silicon Photonics Back-End Integration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Horizontal Slot Waveguides for Silicon Photonics Back-End Integration
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents the development of integrated silicon photonic devices. These devices are compatible with the present and near future CMOS technology. High-khorizontal grating couplers and waveguides are proposed. This work consists of simulations and device design, as well as the layout for the fabrication process, device fabrication, process development, characterization instrument development and electro-optical characterizations.

The work demonstrates an alternative solution to costly silicon-on-insulator photonics. The proposed solution uses bulk silicon wafers and thin film deposited waveguides. Back-end deposited horizontal slot grating couplers and waveguides are realized by multi-layers of amorphous silicon and high-k materials.

The achievements of this work include: A theoretical study of fully etched slot grating couplers with Al2O3, HfO2 and AIN, an optical study of the high-k films with spectroscopic ellipsometry, an experimental demonstration of fully etched SiO2 single slot grating couplers and double slot Al2O3 grating couplers, a practical demonstration of horizontal double slot high-k waveguides, partially etched Al2O3 single slot grating couplers, a study of a scheme for integration of the double slot Al2O3  waveguides with selectively grown germanium PIN photodetectors, realization of test chips for the integrated germanium photodetectors, and study of integration with graphene photodetectors through embedding the graphene into a high-k slot layer.

From an application point of view, these high-k slot waveguides add more functionality to the current silicon photonics. The presented devices can be used for low cost photonics applications. Also alternative optical materials can be used in the context of this photonics platform.

With the robust design, the grating couplers result in improved yield and a more cost effective solution is realized for integration of the waveguides with the germanium and graphene photodetectors.





Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xiii, 90 p.
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:17
silicon photonics, slot waveguides, grating couplers, CMOS tech- nology, high-k, ALD, germanium photodetectors, graphene photodetectors, pho- tonic integrated circuits
National Category
Nano Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155732 (URN)978-91-7595-340-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-05, Sal/hall A, Electrum, KTH-ICT, Kista, 10:00 (English)

QC 20141114

Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-11 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved

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Naiini, Maziar M.Henkel, ChristophMalm, Gunnar B.Östling, Mikael
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