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Study of Penetration Depth and Droplet Behavior in the Case of a Gas Jet Impinging on the Surface of Molten Metal using Liquid Ga-In-Sn
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3548-8638
2012 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 83, no 7, 678-685 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To study the penetration depth in the case of a gas jet impinging on the surface of liquid steel, cold model experiments were carried out using a liquid alloy GaInSn, which had similar physical properties as liquid steel. A HCl solution was used to simulate the top slag. The top phase was found to have appreciable effect on the penetration depth. Comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of the existing models indicated that most the model predictions deviated from the experimental results at higher lance heights and gas flow rates. New model parameter was suggested based on the present experimental data. The observation of the formation and movement of metal droplets generated by the gas jet was also made. The velocity of the droplet was found to be at a level only about 1% of the terminal velocity. This low velocity suggested that the turbulent viscosity played important role and the droplets could have long resident time in the slag.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 83, no 7, 678-685 p.
Keyword [en]
BOF, penetration depth, droplet, residence time
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-99413DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100336ISI: 000305967700008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84863682755OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-99413DiVA: diva2:542321
Funder
EU, European Research Council
Note
QC 20120731Available from: 2012-07-31 Created: 2012-07-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A study of some aspects of gas-slag-metal interactions: Towards dynamic process model and control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of some aspects of gas-slag-metal interactions: Towards dynamic process model and control
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis deals with the development of a new type of dynamic model for metallurgical reactors. It also covers some of the theoretical aspects of steelmaking that is necessary to include in such an application. The thesis consists of modeling work, high temperature experiments and cold model experiments.

Two different aspects of slags in the oxygen steelmaking were investigated. In the first study, slag samples were equilibrated with copper at 1923K in order to study their capacities in capturing phosphorous. Some of the samples were liquid-solid mixtures. The solid phases in these samples were identified by SEM analysis. The identified phases were found to agree well with Thermocalc calculations while the amount of solid fractions didn’t. The phosphorous distribution between the different phases was examined. The phosphate capacities of the samples were evaluated. The MgO content didn’t show any appreciable impact on the phosphate capacity. Furthermore the activities of FeO in the liquid slag samples were calculated and were found to deviate positively from ideality. In the second study the foaming height of CaO-SiO2-FeO slags by the reaction with hot metal was investigated. It was found that the foaming height increased with increasing FeO content up to 20-25%. The foaming height was seen to decrease with increased viscosity. The present results indicated that simply using foaming index for converter slag might lead to wrong conclusion.

Simulation experiments using cold model at room temperature were conducted. Cold model experiments were carried out in order to study the penetration depth due to an impinging gas jet on the surface of a liquid metal. The liquid alloy Ga-In-Sn was used to simulate steel. And an HCl solution was used to simulate the slag. A comparison with predictions of existing models was made and a new model parameter was suggested. The observation of the movement of metal droplets generated by the gas jet was also made. The low velocity of droplets suggested that the turbulent viscosity played important role and the droplets could have long resident time in the slag.

Furthermore a study of the effect of gas flow rate on homogenization and inclusion removal in a gas stirred ladle was carried out. Both industrial trials and cold model experiments were conducted. As an auxiliary tool CFD was used to predict the mixing times and was found to agree well with both the model experiments and industrial data. The increase of flow rate of inert gas would not improve the mixing substantially at higher flow rates. The water model study showed also that the gas flow rate had negligible effect on the rate of inclusion removal. Both the experiments and CFD calculation strongly suggested that low gas flow rate should be applied in the ladle treatment.

Lastly a new approach to a dynamic process model of 300 ton BOF converter was made. The main feature was to utilize the velocity vectors obtained by CFD simulation. In the standalone model, the steel melt domain was sliced into 1000 cells. Based on the imported velocity vectors from the CFD calculation, the mass transfer of carbon and phosphorus was calculated taking into account the slag metal reactions. The mass exchange between slag and metal was considered to be dominated by the metal droplet formation due to oxygen jet. The convergence of the model calculation and the promising comparison between the model prediction and the industrial data strongly suggested that the proposed approach would be a powerful tool in dynamic process control. However, more precise descriptions of other process aspects need to be included before the model can be practically employed in a dynamic controlling system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. 59 p.
Keyword
BOF, process modeling, phosphorous capacity, penetration depth, slag foaming, mixing time, inclusion removal
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101460 (URN)978-91-7501-456-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-27, H1, Teknikringen 33, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20120829

Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2012-08-29Bibliographically approved

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