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Science and Technology for Americium Transmutation
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Americium could be seen as the most troublesome element that is presentin nuclear fuel. This thesis offers different points of view on the possibility ofamericium transmutation. The first point of view elaborates simulations ofamericium-bearing facilities, namely nuclear data, a popular computationalcode and modeling techniques. The second point of view is focused on practicalusage of the simulations to examine upper limit of americium in a specificreactor.

Abstract [sv]

Americium är ett av det mest besvärande elementen i använt kärnbränsle.Denna avhandling behandlar olika aspekter av möjligheten att transmuteraamericium i snabba reaktorsystem. I den första varianten utarbetas simuleringaroch beräkningsmodeller för neutrondatamätningar av betydelse föracceleratordrivna system avsedda att transmutera americium. I den senareundersöks mer praktiska tillämpningar, i synnerhet beräknas gränser för hurmycket americium som kan laddas i bränslet för kritiska bykylda reaktorer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , xii, 62 p.
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2012:21
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100186ISBN: 978-91-7501-326-8 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-100186DiVA: diva2:542942
Public defence
2012-08-17, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20120806

Available from: 2012-08-06 Created: 2012-08-06 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. MCNPX simulations of the SCANDAL setup for measurement of neutron scattering cross section at 175MeV
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MCNPX simulations of the SCANDAL setup for measurement of neutron scattering cross section at 175MeV
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2010 (English)In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. 81, no 6, 065202- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Scattered Nucleon Detection Assembly (SCANDAL) setup at The Svedberg Laboratory has been used to produce neutron elastic scattering cross section data at 175MeV for bismuth and iron. This work presents MCNPX simulations of the experimental setup and aims to describe processes and data important for the upcoming off-line data analysis. In the experiment, neutrons scattered off the target are converted to protons, which are stopped in scintillator crystals. The results include a description of the proton spectra dependence on the neutron-to-proton conversion angle, suggesting a cut at a conversion angle of 15.2 degrees. Calculation of the hit position gates indicates high proton leakage from the crystals. A study of the converter describes the role of its chemical composition and also the role of other plastic scintillators on the proton spectra. The neutron-to-proton conversion efficiency of the converter simulated by MCNPX is 5.1x10(-4) and corresponds to theoretical predictions.

Keyword
INTRANUCLEAR CASCADE CALCULATION, FACILITY
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27531 (URN)10.1088/0031-8949/81/06/065202 (DOI)000278412300008 ()2-s2.0-77953213233 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note
QC 20101217Available from: 2010-12-17 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Comparison of calculated and measured reaction rates obtained through foil activation in the subcritical dual spectrum facility YALINA-Booster
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of calculated and measured reaction rates obtained through foil activation in the subcritical dual spectrum facility YALINA-Booster
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2011 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 38, no 6, 1412-1417 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reaction rates were measured by the foil activation technique to obtain neutron spectrum information in a subcritical core driven by an external neutron source. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations in order to examine the capability of the Monte Carlo code MCNP together with ENDFB-6.8. JEFF-3.1.1 and CENDL-3.1 neutron cross section libraries to predict the neutron spectrum dependent reaction rates correctly in a subcritical core. The focus lies on fast neutrons. A discrepancy is found in the calculated-to-experimental values of the reaction rates and an inaccurate cross section is identified in CENDL-3.1. 

Keyword
Foil activation, Reaction rate, YALINA
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33987 (URN)10.1016/j.anucene.2011.01.028 (DOI)000290194100023 ()2-s2.0-79953746629 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110523Available from: 2011-05-23 Created: 2011-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. The impact of americium on the ULOF and UTOP transients of the European Lead-cooled SYstem (ELSY)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of americium on the ULOF and UTOP transients of the European Lead-cooled SYstem (ELSY)
2012 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 47, 104-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) transient and the Unprotected Transient-Over-Power (UTOP) have been evaluated for the European Lead-cooled SYstem (ELSY) for americium concentrations in the fuel between 0% and 10%. With americium in the core, the ELSY design exceeds the maximum allowed asymptotic temperature limit for fuel during UTOP, except for low Am contents. During ULOF, fuel and clad temperatures stabilize below the asymptotic temperature limits.

Keyword
Asymptotic temperature, ELSY, LFR, ULOF, UTOP
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100193 (URN)10.1016/j.anucene.2012.03.036 (DOI)000306448800015 ()2-s2.0-84861123057 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120817Available from: 2012-08-06 Created: 2012-08-06 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. The impact of americium on transients in the European Lead-cooled SYstem ELSY loaded with nitride fuel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of americium on transients in the European Lead-cooled SYstem ELSY loaded with nitride fuel
2012 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 50, 56-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Unprotected Loss-of-Flow transient (ULOF) and the Unprotected Transient-Over-Power (UTOP) have been evaluated for a modified design of the European Lead-cooled SYstem (ELSY) using nitride fuel. Additional americium has been added to the core in concentrations of 0%, 4% and 8%. During ULOF, fuel and clad asymptotic temperatures stabilize below limits. For UTOP, however, the maximum allowed cladding temperature limit is exceeded at EOC and introduction of a power penalty is necessary for Am transmutation. The power penalty is higher than that reported for SFR.

Keyword
ELSY; UTOP; ULOF; Nitride
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100196 (URN)10.1016/j.anucene.2012.07.007 (DOI)000312120600008 ()2-s2.0-84866522334 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130118. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-08-06 Created: 2012-08-06 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Impact of reflector on Doppler feedback in fast reactors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of reflector on Doppler feedback in fast reactors
(English)In: Progress in nuclear energy (New series), ISSN 0149-1970, E-ISSN 1878-4224Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100200 (URN)
Note
QS2012Available from: 2012-08-06 Created: 2012-08-06 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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