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Selective area heteroepitaxy through nanoimprint lithography for large area InP on Si
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
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2012 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 9, no 7, 1610-1613 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of nanoimprint lithography, a low cost and time saving alternative to E-beam lithography, for growing heteroepitaxial indium phosphide layer on silicon is demonstrated. Two types of patterns on 500 nm and 200 nm thick silicon dioxide mask either on InP substrate or InP seed layer on silicon were generated by UV nanoimprint lithography: (i) circular openings of diameter 150 nm and 200 nm and (ii) line openings of width ranging from 200 nm to 500 nm. Selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP were conducted on these patterns in a low pressure hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The epitaxial layers obtained were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and micro photoluminescence. The growth from the circular openings on InP substrate and InP (seed) on Si substrate is extremely selective with similar growth morphology. The final shape has an octahedral flat top pyramid type geometry. These can be used as templates for growing InP nanostructures on silicon. The grown InP layers from the line openings on InP substrates are ∌ 2.5 Όm thick with root mean square surface roughness as low as 2 nm. Completely coalesced layer of InP over an area of 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm was obtained.The room temperature photoluminescence intensity from InP layers on InP substrate is 55% of that of homoepitaxial InP layer. The decrease in PL intensity with respect to that of the homoepitaxial layer is probably due to defects associated with stacking faults caused by surface roughness of the mask surface. Thus in this study, we have demonstrated that growth of heteroepitaxial InP both homogeneously and selectively on the large area of silicon can be achieved. This opens up the feasibility of growing InP on large area silicon for several photonic applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 9, no 7, 1610-1613 p.
Keyword [en]
Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, Heteroepitaxy, Indium phosphide on silicon, Nanoimprint lithography
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100480DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201100678ISI: 000306479300024Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84863995899OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-100480DiVA: diva2:543853
Conference
16th International Semiconducting and Insulating Materials Conference (SIMC-XVI) Location: Royal Inst Technol (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden Date: JUN 19-23, 2011
Note
QC 20120817Available from: 2012-08-10 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. New Methods in the growth of InP on Si and Regrowth of Semi-insulating InP for Photonic Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Methods in the growth of InP on Si and Regrowth of Semi-insulating InP for Photonic Devices
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses new methods in the growth of indium phosphide on silicon for enabling silicon photonics and nano photonics as well as efficient and cost-effective solar cells. It also addresses the renewal of regrowth of semi-insulating indium phosphide for realizing buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high power and wall plug efficiency for sensing applications.

As regards indium phosphide on silicon, both crystalline and polycrystalline growth methods are investigated. The crystalline growth methods are: (i) epitaxial lateral overgrowth to realize large area InP on Si, for silicon photonics (ii) a modified epitaxial lateral overgrowth method, called corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth, to obtain indium phosphide/silicon heterointerface for efficient and cost effective solar cells and (iii) selective growth of nanopyramidal frusta on silicon for nanophotonics. The polycrystalline growth method on silicon for low cost solar cell fabrication has been realized via (i) phosphidisation of indium oxide coating synthesized from solution chemistry and (ii) phosphidisation cum growth on indium metal on silicon. All our studies involve growth, growth analysis and characterization of all the above crystalline and polycrystalline layers and structures.

After taking into account the identified defect filtering mechanisms, we have implemented means of obtaining good optical quality crystalline layers and structures in our epitaxial growth methods. We have also identified feasible causes for the persistence of certain defects such as stacking faults. The novel methods of realizing indium phosphide/silicon heterointerface and nanopyramidal frusta of indium phosphide on silicon are particularly attractive for several applications other than the ones mentioned here.

Both the polycrystalline indium phosphide growth methods result in good optical quality material on silicon. The indium assisted phosphidisation cum growth method normally results in larger grain size indium phosphide than the one involving phosphidisation of indium oxide. These two methods are generic and can be optimized for low cost solar cells of InP on any flexible substrate.

The method of regrowth of semi-insulating indium phosphide that is routinely practiced in the fabrication of buried heterostructure telecom laser has been implemented for quantum cascade lasers. The etched ridges of the latter can be 6-15 µm deep, which is more than 2-3 times as those of the former. Although this is a difficult task, through our quick and flexible regrowth method we have demonstrated buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with an output power up to 2. 5 W and wall plug efficiency up to 9% under continuous operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xi, 84 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:10
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145375 (URN)978-91-7595-157-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-12, Sal E, Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140523

Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2014-12-18Bibliographically approved

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Lourdudoss, Sebastian

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