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Bio-Patch Design and Implementation Based on a Low-Power System-on-Chip and Paper-Based Inkjet Printing Technology
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0528-9371
Department of Electronics, Tampere University of Technology.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, ISSN 1089-7771, E-ISSN 1558-0032, Vol. 16, no 6, 1043-1050 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of bio-signals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-µm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 µW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nano-particle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel bio-signals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in-vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 16, no 6, 1043-1050 p.
Keyword [en]
Bio-electric SoC, Sensor IC, Bio-Patch, electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), paper-based inkjet printing technology
National Category
Medical Equipment Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100691DOI: 10.1109/TITB.2012.2204437ISI: 000312268300007PubMedID: 22711780Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84870923837OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-100691DiVA: diva2:544265
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130110

Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hybrid Integration of Active Bio-signal Cable with Intelligent Electrode: Steps toward Wearable Pervasive-Healthcare Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Integration of Active Bio-signal Cable with Intelligent Electrode: Steps toward Wearable Pervasive-Healthcare Applications
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Personalized and pervasive healthcare help seamlessly integrate healthcare and wellness into people’s daily life, independent of time and space. With the developments in biomedical sensing technologies nowadays, silicon based integrated circuits have shown great advantages in terms of tiny physical size, and low power consumption. As a result, they have been found in many advanced medical applications. In the meanwhile, printed electronics is considered as a promising approach enabling cost-effective manufacturing of thin, flexible, and light-weight devices. A hybrid integration of integrated circuits and printed electronics provides a promising solution for the future wearable healthcare devices.

This thesis first reviews the current approaches for bio-electric signal sensing and the state-of-the-art designs for biomedical circuit and systems. In the second part, the idea of Intelligent Electrode and Active Cable for wearable ECG monitoring systems is proposed. Based on this concept, we design and fabricate two customized IC chips to provide a single cable solution for long-term healthcare monitoring. The first chip is a digital ASIC with a serial communication protocol implemented on chip to support data and command packets transmission between different ASIC chips. Also, it has on-chip memory to buffer the digital bio-signal. An Intelligent Electrode is formed by embedding the ASIC chip into the conductive electrode. With the on-chip integrated communication protocol, a wired sensor network can be established enabling the single cable solution. The ASIC’s controlling logic is capable of making dynamic network management, thus endows the electrode with local intelligence. The second chip is a fully integrated mixed-signal SoC. In addition to the digital controller implemented and verified in the first chip, another 2 key modules are integrated: a tunable analog front end circuits, and a 6-input SAR ADC. The second chip works as a networked SoC sensor. The command-based network management is verified through functional tests using the fabricated SoCs. With the programmable analog front end circuits, the SoC sensor can be configured to detect a variety of bio-electric signals. EOG, EMG, ECG, and EEG signals are successfully recorded through in-vivo tests.

This research also explores the potential of using high accurate inkjet printing technology as an inexpensive integration method and enabling technology to design and fabricate bio-sensing devices. Performance evaluation of printed electrodes and interconnections on flexible substrates is made to examine the feasibility of applying them in the fabrication of Bio-Patch. The reliability of the inkjet printed sliver traces is evaluated via static bending tests. The measurement results prove that the printed silver lines can offer a reliable interconnection. In-vivo test results show that the quality of ECG signal sensed by the printed electrodes is comparable with the one gained by commercial electrodes.

Finally, two Bio-Patch prototypes are presented: one is based on photo paper substrate, the other on polyimide substrate. These two prototypes are implemented by heterogeneous integration of the silicon based SoC sensor with cost-effective printed electronics onto the flexible substrates. The measurement results indicate the SoC operates smoothly with the printed electronics. Clean ECG signal is successfully recorded from both of the implemented Bio-Patch prototypes. This versatile SoC sensor can be used in various applications according to specific requirements. And this heterogeneous system combining high-level integrated SoC technology and inkjet printing technique provides a promising solution for future personalized and pervasive healthcare applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xiii, 60 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119280 (URN)978-91-7501-670-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-16, Sal-E, Forum 120, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130318

Available from: 2013-04-19 Created: 2013-03-11 Last updated: 2013-04-19Bibliographically approved
2. Heterogeneous Integration of Silicon and Printed Electronics for Intelligente Sensing Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous Integration of Silicon and Printed Electronics for Intelligente Sensing Devices
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driven by the exploding popularity of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), the demand for thin, flexible, lightweight intelligent sensingdevices is growing rapidly. Two attractive examples are intelligent packaging and wearable healthcare monitoring devices, which help to connect and track / monitor everything / everybody at any time and in any place. The remarkably swift development of flexible and printed electronics is promoting new possibilities for cost-effective manufacturing of such devices. However, compared with silicon-based circuits, state-of-the-art all-printed circuits are encountering low integration density, long switching time and corresponding high cost per function. Therefore, a heterogeneous platform is in great demand, which employs a cost-effective, large-area manufacturing technique while keeping the same complex functionality and processing capability as silicon-based systems. Due to temperature and mechanical reasons, traditional silicon integration methods, such as solder bonding and wire bonding, are not suitable for flexible printed electronics. This thesis aims to develop a generally applicable hetero-geneous integration platform for the realization of intelligent sensing devices on flexible substrates.

First, inkjet printing technique is introduced and studied. As the basic and key element, inkjet printing technology is employed to fabricate interconnections as well as electrodes of the printed sensors. Novel flexible media, plastic and paper, are evaluated as the substrates of printed electronic systems from two aspects: the electrical characteristics and performance reliability. In addition to widely used inkjet/photo paper, packaging paper is presented as a promising candidate for intelligent packaging applications due to the advantages in terms of lower price, higher temperature endurance and better reliability against 85◦/85% RH aging.

Second, the heterogeneous integration platform enabled byinkjet printing is presented. Benefiting from the non-contact, accurate alignment and fine resolution features, this integration technique has the advantages of simplified fabrication process and multi-substrate compatibility. The design rules have been studied and the integration process is optimized for silicon chips with/without packaging.

Finally, to verify the suitability, the heterogeneous integration platform is applied to two representative applications, each with unique emphasis and requirements.

For intelligent packaging, low-cost is one crucial requirement. Paper substrate is selected because it is cost-effective, recyclableand a commonly-used packaging material in industry. In order to fit into non-regular shape pack-ages, the intelligent packaging needs to be bent or folded, which brings about reliability concern for paper electronics. Therefore, bending and folding tests are applied to reveal the capability and the limitation of paper electronics in terms of flexibility. For applications such as fresh food tracking, humidity is an important physical quantity to monitor during transportation and storage. Therefore, a resistive humidity sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes is fabricated and integrated. A commercial packaged microcontroller is used to sense and store the resistance of the sensor and control the LEDs to indicate the ambient humidity level. By integratingthe microcon-troller, LEDs and a switch with the printed sensor and battery, a prototype of a paper-based humidity sensor card is implemented.

For the healthcare application, user comfort is an essential element. Future long-term healthcare devices require a bio-sensing system which is small, thin, lightweight and wearable, has a long-battery life, and is easy to customize. The heterogeneous platform offers a promising solution for such systems from three aspects. 1) A fully integrated system-on-chip (SoC) is embedded to detect and process the bio-signal. The SoC solution features tiny size and low-power consumption, which contribute to system miniaturization and long battery lifetime. 2) Inkjet printing offers a cost-effective approach to fabricate personalized electrodes. 3) Inkjet printed interconnections enable the direct integration of the bare die instead of the packaged chip. This significantly reduces the physical size of the system, simplifies the manufacture process and lowers the cost. The concept is demonstrated by aminiaturized wearable Bio-Patch with the size of 4.5 cm×2.5 cm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. v, 61 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 14:05
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142920 (URN)978-91-7595-033-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-28, Sal/Hall D, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140314

Available from: 2014-03-14 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2014-03-14Bibliographically approved

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