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Foot-mounted INS for Everybody: An Open-source Embedded Implementation
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3054-6413
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2718-0262
Department of ECE, Indian Institute of Science (IISc). (Statistical Signal Processing Lab)
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), IEEE , 2012, 140-145 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present an open-source, realtime, embedded implementation of a foot-mounted, zero-velocity-update-aided inertial navigation system. The implementation includes both hardware design and software, uses off-the-shelf components and assembly methods, and features a standard USB interface. The software is written in C and can easily be modified to run user implemented a1gorithlUS. The hardware design and the software are released under permissive open-source licenses and production files, source code, documentation, and further resources areavailable at The reproduction cost for a single unit is below $800, with the inertial measurement unit makingup the bulk ($700). The form factor of the implementation is small enough for it to be integrated in the sole of a shoe. A performance evaluation of the system shows a position errors for short trajectories «100 [m)) of ± 0.2-1 % of the traveled distance, depending on the shape of trajectory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE , 2012. 140-145 p.
, IEEE - ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium, ISSN 2153-358X
Keyword [en]
acceleration measurement, computerised instrumentation, footwear, hardware-software codesign, inertial navigation, peripheral interfaces, public domain software, system buses, system documentation
National Category
Signal Processing
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101705DOI: 10.1109/PLANS.2012.6236875ISI: 000309273900019ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84866262273ISBN: 978-1-4673-0385-9OAI: diva2:548755
IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS) Location: Myrtle Beach, SC Date: APR 23-26, 2012
ICT - The Next Generation

© 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

QC 20121001

Available from: 2012-10-01 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2013-11-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Infrastructure-free pedestrian localization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infrastructure-free pedestrian localization
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of your own and other's positions are frequently a prerequisite for acting, leading others, and interacting in and with the environment; to retrieve relevant information and to process and interpret it; and to understand, compile, and learn from observations of the surrounding and its dynamics. This holds for humans as well as for machines and systems made for supporting and controlling them. Consequently, systems which automatically provide position information of peoples are of interest and the larger subject area of this thesis. Position can be obtained from well-known infrastructure based systems such as GPS. However, these systems carry obvious drawbacks in their infrastructure dependence which gives them limited coverage and system robustness. By observing our own ability to localize ourselves, it is obvious that localization without infrastructure at with a better (relative) accuracy is achievable. The development over the last decades of sensor and processing hardware and statistical methods have started to make such localization possible. This thesis specifically concerns systems and statistical methods for infrastructure-free localization. The this primarily deals with statistical methods but also describe hardware in terms of high-level system designs.

For many critical applications such as positioning of emergency responders, dismounted soldiers, and security personnel, it is unsuitable for the positioning system to be dependent on infrastructure or prior knowledge about the environment. Consequently, this thesis deals with systems and methods for infrastructure-free and prior-knowledge-free pedestrian localization. The thesis is specifically concerned with statistical methods but will also cover hardware in terms of high-level system designs. The thesis is composed of an introduction followed by a collection of papers which are divided into two parts, each concerning a separate problem area. The introduction motivates and describes the localization problem in general terms and gives a coherent guide to the articles.

The first group of articles together describes an infrastructure-free system for tactical localization of small units of agents. The physical implementation of the localization system carries the name TOR (Tacitcal lOcatoR) and have been tested on fire fighters during realistic smoke diving exercises. This system primarily depends on pedestrian dead-reckoning based on foot-mounted inertial navigation and inter-agent radio ranging. The core parts of the system which are dealt with are: foot-mounted inertial navigation units which provides dead reckoning of individual agents, system structure and estimation algorithms which, based on the dead reckoning and inter-agent ranging, provides estimates of the agent positions, initialization algorithms for the estimation, and a user interface which exploits voice radio communication and 3D-audio to let the agents hear where they have each other.

The second group of articles concerns low-level processing for extraction of spatial information of camera images (video), a prevailing infrastructure-free data source for relating an agent's position to the environment. These articles are focused on formalization and fast implementations of fundamental processing steps. An implementation of scale-space only relying on integer signal representation of image data and simple arithmetic operations is presented. Further, a unifying theory of feature point orientation assignment is derived and a novel method for the same is presented. Thereafter, the small but frequently occuring processing step in which image gradient samples are binned based on their argument, is treated and three fast solutions with varying properties are suggested. Finally, a localization system based on inertial navigation aided by imagery data is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. viii, 37 p.
National Category
Signal Processing
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133443 (URN)978-91-7501-906-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-29, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)

QC 20131105

Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-01 Last updated: 2013-11-05Bibliographically approved

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